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Andrew Carnegie 




Copyright by Viinder-weyde 

MR. CARNEGIE IX HIS LIBRARY, DICTATING TO HIS SECRETARY 



Andrew Carnegie 



The Man and His Work 



By 

Bernard Alderson 



♦ « 




• <»."> » > 



New York 

Doubleday, Page & Co, 

1905 









Copyrieht, igol 
By DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY 

Published November. igo£ 






• • •• • • 



PREFACE 

A KEYNOTE to the true description of a rich man 
who does good with his money is struck by 
Ruskin when he defines wealth to be "the possession 
of the valuable by the valiant" ; for, as he goes on to 
say, "that man is the richest who, having perfected 
the fimction of his own life, has also the widest 
helpful interest." 

These words apply with singular fitness to Andrew 
Carnegie. /The story of his life is a record of high aims 
and strenuous endeavor, disclosing constant indica- 
tions of a master mind; so that the rising generation, 
as they follow the gradual growth of his fortunes, and 
the development of his character, may gather from an 
account of the winning of his wealth a strong incentive 
to courageous enterprise, and also appreciate the inten- 
tion of his pithy paradox, "A man who dies rich dies 
disgraced"*^ 

Who can fail to admire that firm purpose to complete 
his duties as he interprets them, which has reached a 
noble climax in the fixed determination to put his mil- 
lions to the most beneficial use ? He is anxious abo\'e 
all things to prevent this mint of money from doing 
harm, by disbursing it worthily during his lifetime, and 

vii 



226724 



viii PREFACE 

although he must accept the penalties with the pleas- 
ures of his prominent position, he can well afford to 
disregard petty criticism. 

** Wealth," said Gladstone, *'is the business of the 
world"; and when he added, "the enormous power 
which it possesses has been used on the whole well," 
we cannot doubt that he had in his mind this great 
millionaire for whom he frequently expressed a warm 
regard, and whose "Gospel of Wealth" he reviewed 
in the glowing terms which are quoted in these pages. 

Mr. Carnegie, himself a thorough and thoughtful 
student of men and manners, is heartily at one with an 
old writer who has quaintly asserted that "to amass 
money and to make no use of it is as senseless as to 
hunt game and not roast it," and therefore it is one of 
the main purposes of this volume to prove that he — 
the self-made Steel King — stands head and shoulders 
above most of his fellow-millionaires, in that he has 
undertaken to distribute with his own hands, and at his 
own discretion after most careful thought, the gigantic 
funds which he has accumulated by such alert and 
unflinching industry; holding himself to be no more 
than a trustee, responsible for their application through 
such channels, and to such ends, as may be expected 
to enrich the minds and moral welfare of those whom 
he thus makes his heirs. 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTBR 

I. Birthplace and Boyhood 






3 


y, II. Stepping-stones 






17 


\>: III. Fortune's Flood 






31 


''^V. The Steel Master . 






45 


|V V. As an Employer of Labor 






61 


VI. Conflicts with Labor 






77 


VII. His Political Faith 






93 


VIII. International Competition 






III 


^ IX. His Gospel of Wealth . 






129 


X. His Benefactions 






• 153 


XI. The Pen of a Ready Writer 




. 181 


XII. Obiter Dicta . 


• 1 


» ~— 


. 217 



IX 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Mr. Carnbgib in His Library . . Frontispiece 

PACING PAGB 

Thb Carnbgib Home at Dunfermline . . 26 

Thb Carnegie Company's 

Edgar Thompson Works 

Homestead Works }- • • 54 

DuQUESNE Works 

Carnegie Institute 80 

Skibo Castle 108 

Skibo Castle. View from the Wood . . . 134 

The Mansion in New York. Front View . . 162 

The Mansion in New York. Side and Rear View, 

Showing the Garden . . . • .188 



XI 



Birthplace and Boyhood 



Andrew Carnegie 

THE MAN AND HIS WORK 



CHAPTER I 

BIRTHPLACE AND BOYHOOD 

ANDREW CARNEGIE was bom in Dunfermline on 
- November 25, 1837, the year in which Queen 
Victoria ascended the throne. Dunfermline is one of 
Scotland's oldest cities, and has been the scene of 
many famous episodes in Scottish history. It formerly 
contained one of the richest abbeys in the land, but 
to-day only the nave of the church remains among 
the ruins. In this abbey the renowned Malcolm and 
his consort and seven other Scottish kings and five 
queens are buried. Adjacent to its ruins are those 
of the ancient royal palace in which the hapless 
Charles I. was bom. What, however, endears Dim- 
fermline above everything else to Andrew Carnegie 
is not the fact that it was the burial-place or the 
residence of Scottish royalty, but that Robert Bruce 
was here laid to rest in his ** winding-sheet of cloth 
of gold." 

3 



4 . — "' ' 'ANDREW CARNEGIE 

Young Carnegie early began to study the history of 
his native land, and it was not long before he became a 
hero-worshiper of the most pronounced type. Bruce, 
Wallace and Bums were exalted by his youthful 
patriotism to lofty thrones of veneration ; the stricken 
fields of Bannockburn and Stirling became to him a 
glorious heritage. These democratic feelings of na- 
tional enthusiasm were intensified by the circumstances 
of the period. For many years Scotland had suffered 
under a tyrannical system of government, which had 
created a feeling of bitter hatred against the landed 
aristocracy. Kings and nobles were looked upon as 
mere puppets, and held in common detestation by the 
rank and file. A succession of weak sovereigns had 
occupied the English throne, and by their unwise 
actions had alienated the loyalty of the Scottish people. 

These facts were early impressed on young Andrew's 
mind by his uncle, who took care that the boy should 
have a proper conception of Scottish history. Andrew 
attended the local school, but the chief part of his 
education was given him by his imcle, a man of some 
ability, who held extreme democratic republican views, 
which he expressed with unrestrained vigor. 

Mr. Carnegie says that his political instincts were 
first aroused by listening to the speeches of his uncle 
and father, who addressed in the evenings large 
assemblies of the people. They were the leaders of an 



BIRTHPLACE AND BOYHOOD 5 

agitation for reform, and in the course of their speeches 
they fearlessly denounced the oppression of the English 
Government. These sentiments found fertile soil in 
young Andrew's mind. Many years afterward he 

said : — 

**What we learn at seven sticks! When I was at 
that age, I awoke one night to hear my uncle had been 
put into jail. I knew there was hidden in the attic a 
rebellious republican flag, for all our family were 
Chartists, and to this day when I speak of a king or 
hereditary privilege my blood tingles and moimts to 
my face. Sometimes — ^and not so many years ago — 
I have felt for a passing moment that to shoot all 
hereditary kings, one after the other, would not be un- 
congenial work, for I hate hereditary privileges with 
a hate nothing else inspires, because I got it at seven, 
and it requires an effort to keep it within bounds." 

One of the proudest boasts he makes to-day is that 
his uncle was imprisoned for upholding the rights of 
the people, and vindicating the liberty of free speech. 

For eleven years, during the most impressionable 
period of his life, Andrew Carnegie breathed this 
atmosphere so strongly charged with republican senti- 
ment. The lessons of that early training were firmly 
ingrained upon his mind, and forty years afterward 
we find the natural result in his book, "Triumphant 
Democracy." The seeds sown in his boyhood were 



6 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

destined to produce enduring fruit. His antipathy to 
royalty and the aristocracy has been to him a consum- 
ing passion. The environment of his youth, and his 
residence in the United States, have been chiefly re- 
sponsible for this uncompromising attitude. 

But the condition and general welfare of the masses, 
when Andrew Carnegie was a boy, were vastly different 
from what they are to-day. He has learned much 
since his youth, and now regards Great Britain as a 
republic, like the United States, with this distinc- 
tion, that the one is crowned, the other uncrowned. 
It is only after years of wise monarchical government 
that the Scottish people have become animated with 
that loyal devotion to the throne which is now one of 
their distinguishing characteristics. 

Andrew Carnegie's political convictions were thus 

J formed by his uncle, but his character and habits were 

most happily moulded by his mother. She was a 

typical specimen of the strong-minded, warm-hearted, 

frugal Scottish housewife. Until Andrew was eight 

years old she attended to his education and taught him 

the rudiments. He was then handed over to the care 

of the local schoolmaster. Here is an amusing incident 

of his school life, which throws some light on the way 

in which he was brought up. 

/x Every morning the lessons were preceded by some 

l/xeligious exercises, and upon one occasion each member 



BIRTHPLACE AND BOYHOOD 7 

of the class had to repeat a proverb from the Bible. \ 
When it came to Andrew's turn he stood up and boldly 
proclaimed, **Take care of your pence, the pounds will 
take care of themselves. ' ' This was not quite orthodox, 
but it illustrated how the famous maxim had been \ 
drilled into the lad's mind by his mother. 

Andrew Carnegie must be included in the long list 
of illustrious men whose success in life has been largely 
due to the greatest of all blessings a youth can have — 
a wise and good mother. His devotion to her was 
exceedingly strong. She was the guardian angel of his 
life — his "saint," as he always called her. In every 
trouble and sorrow she was his helper and comforter, \ 
and in every difficulty and perplexity his guide and / 
counselor. Her strong loving influence supportecy 
him through all the severe strain of his strenuous 
struggle for success. It was her practical sympathy\ 
and cheerful encouragement which sustained his 
youthful strength and ambition during the darkest 
days. Never for one moment has he forgotten what 
she did for him. He has often said he can never 
adequately estimate all that he owes to her strong will, 
her far-seeing judgment, and her loving, motherly 
sympathy. 

When he became possessed of great wealth she still 
remained his constant companion, and accompanied 
him on all his holidays, both at home and abroad. 



8 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

While she lived he remained single, choosing to lavish 
upon her all the love and reverence of his nature. 
Now that she has passed away, he is never tired of 
singing her praises and of recalling her goodness. 
This deep attachment and unbroken fidelity to his 
mother is one of the strongest features of Andrew 
Carnegie's character, and herein he has set a worthy 
example to every youth who desires to become a true 
man. 

His mother, he once remarked, was the mainspring 
of all his hopes. For her he worked, for her sake alone 
he sought to acquire wealth, so that her old age might 
be spent in comfort and in peace. To his great joy 
she lived to the ripe old age of eighty. 
-^ The little homestead at Dunfermline derived its 
livelihood from the staple industry of the town. 
Andrew's father was a master weaver, and as the owner 
of four damask looms and an employer of apprentices 
he was looked upon as a prosperous business man. 
Those were the days of the hand looms, when the trade 
in cloth was done through merchants, who issued their 
orders to master weavers and supplied them with the 
raw material. 

The introduction of the steam loom effected a com- 
plete change in these conditions. The old methods 
could not successfully compete with the new steam 
loom and the factory system of labor. This trade 



BIRTHPLACE AND BOYHOOD 9 

revolution cast a shadow over Mr. Carnegie's home 
and future prospects. His business rapidly dwindled, 
and eventually became unprofitable. For a time he 
struggled manfully against these adverse forces, but 
he had at last to give way. 

One day he returned from delivering some goods to 
say that he could get no further orders, and turning to 
his children he said, "Andy, I have no more work.'* 
It is in the irony of things that the youngster should 
have felt in his boyhood the cruel effect of those 
forces of competition and enterprise of which, in later 
years, he was to be the stanchest champion, and which 
were destined to bring him such enormous wealth. 

* * No more work ! ' ' The keen-witted boy knew what 
that meant, and the news, with all its significance 
and tmspeakable misery, sank deep into his childish 
heart. He there and then resolved that he would 
strive with all his strength to drive the wolf of poverty 
from his home. It was but the impetuous resolution 
of a boy of ten, yet it was the spark of a strong 
determination which had suddenly been kindled in 
his nature, and which never ceased to exert its influ- 
ence, urging him on through many youthful trials to 
ultimate success. 

Andrew's father was placed in a difficult position. 
It was useless to move to another town, for the same 
conditions prevailed everywhere. A family council 



lo ANDREW CARNEGIE 

was held, and it was decided, after some hesitation, 
to follow the example of some relatives, who, a few 
years before, had emigrated to Pittsburgh, America, 
where they had met with encouraging success. 

The parents, no doubt, could have managed very 
well in the old country, but for the sake of their two 
boys they decided to take all the risks and endure all 
the hardships of emigration. The crossing of the 
Atlantic in the sailing vessels of those days was a 
rough experience, and the discomforts of a journey 
from New York to Pittsburgh were by no means 
insignificant. Such considerations, however, did not 
weigh much with these hardy Scotch folk. 

The hand looms and the business were sold and 
preparations made for the long voyage. The wrench 
from their native town, and the breaking up of their 
home and friendly associations, proved very hard and 
trying; and in after years Andrew Carnegie gave 
proof of his attachment to his birthplace when he 
said: "What Benares is to the Hindoo, Mecca to the 
Mohammedan, Jerusalem to the Christian, all that 
and more Dunfermline is to me." 

In 1848, the year of the overthrow of kingship in 
France, this young king-hater and his family set sail 
for the republic across the Atlantic. The little party — 
father, mother, Andrew, and his yotmger brother Tom 
— embarked at Broomielaw, Glasgow, on the 800-ton 



BIRTHPLACE AND BOYHOOD ii 

sailing vessel Wiscassett, and thus entered upon their 
seven weeks' voyage to the land of promise — poor 
emigrants, in quest of fortune. Little did they think 
as they saw the shores of bonnie Scotland receding in 
the distance that some day one of their number would 
return from the quest and "bring his sheaves with 
him." 

Young Andy had plenty of time to find his sea legs, 
and he thoroughly enjoyed the voyage, and the liking 
for the sea then awakened has always remained one 
of his greatest delights. He was only eleven years old 
at the time, but he has distinct recollections of that 
parting from the old country and the launch out into 
a new life in the Western world. 

. The family reached Pittsburgh safely, and imme- 
diately settled down. Mr. Carnegie obtained work at 
a cotton factory in the town, and when twelve years old 
Andrew began his business career as a bobbin boy at a 
dollar and twenty cents a week. The fact that he could 
now contribute toward the family expenses filled him 
with intense satisfaction. 

"I was no longer," he writes, "dependent upon my 
parents, but at last admitted to the family partnership 
as a contributing member, and able to help them. I 
think this makes a man out of a boy sooner than any- 
thing else — and a real man, too, if there be any germ 
of true manliness in him. It is everything to feel that 



12 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

you are useful. I have had to deal with great sums, 
many millions of dollars have since passed through my 
hands, but putting all these together, and considering 
money-making as a means of pleasure-giving, or of 
that other feeling much deeper than pleasure — of 
genuine satisfaction, I tell you that one dollar and 
twenty cents outweighs all. It was the direct reward 
of honest manual labor; it represented a week of very 
hard work — so hard that, but for the aim and end 
which sanctified it, slavery might not be too strong 
a term to describe it." 

His hours for one so young were exceedingly long, 
and it is no wonder he has retained such a vivid recol- 
lection of the hardships of child labor. From early 
morn till dewy eve — ^from dark to dark — with but an 
interval of forty minutes for his dinner, he slaved away 
at his uncongenial task. His next situation proved 
even more laborious and responsible, and nothing but 
strong determination and persistent ambition could 
have stood the test. His work was to fire the boiler 
and nm the steam-engine which drove the machinery 
of a small factory. For a boy of thirteen this was, 
indeed, an onerous position, and the heavy strain of 
the work soon began to affect his health and to tell 
upon his nerves. Even in his sleep he was haunted 
by the dread possibility of calamity, and during the 
night would vaguely reach forth his hand to test the 



BIRTHPLACE AND BOYHOOD 13 

water-gauge. One false move he knew might cause 
the whole place to be blown to atoms. 

Those were dark days for the young aspirant, but 
he had not a thought of burdening his home with his 
troubles. Cheerfulness almost amounted to a religion > 
in that little household, and each member strove to 
put aside all disturbing thoughts. He was blessed 
with a spirit of keen, dogged determination. The 
flame of his ambition — most precious of gifts — ^burned 
brightly within him, and although his surroundings 
must have filled him with despair, he never showed the 
white flag, but always had confidence in his future. 
"I was young and had my dreams; and something 
within me always told me that this would not last, and 
that I should soon get into a better position." With 
Nil desperandum for his motto, he became a confirmed 
and plucky little optimist. 

The other members of his family, including his 
mother, were toiling hard, but when they gathered to- 
gether in the evenings all showed their brightest spirits, 
and kept their personal worries and sorrows to them- 
selves. His home was a very happy one, full of sweet- 
ness and love, and to this day he cherishes its memories. 

** I always pity the sons and daughters of rich men," 
he said many years afterward, "who are attended by 
servants, and have governesses at a later age, but they 
do not know what they have missed. They have 



i 



14 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

fathers and mothers — and very kind fathers and 
mothers too — and they think that they enjoy the 
sweetness of these blessings to the full, but this they 
cannot do; for the poor boy who has in his father his 
constant companion, tutor and model, and in his 
mother — ^holy name — his nurse, teacher, guardian 
angel, saint, all in one, has a richer, more precious for- 
tune in life than any rich man's son can possibly know, 
and compared with which all other fortunes count for 
little. It is because I know how sweet and happy and 
pure the home of honest poverty is, how free from care, 
from quarrels, how loving and united its members, 
that I sympathize with the rich man's boy and con- 
gratulate the poor man's boy ; and it is for these reasons 
that from the ranks of the poor the great and good 
have always sprung, and always must spring. It 
seems nowadays a matter of universal desire that 
poverty should be abolished. We should be quite 
willing to abolish luxury, but to abolish poverty would 
be to destroy the only soil upon which mankind can 
depend to produce those virtues which can alone 
enable our race to reach a still higher civilization than 
it now possesses." 



Stepping-Stones 



CHAPTER II 

STEPPING-STONES 

ANDREW CARNEGIE is not an example to quote 
in illustration of the proverb, "A rolling stone 
gathers no moss." He has referred with scorn to the 
precept, " Stick to your last," which he seems to think 
equivalent to "Stick in the mud," and therefore not 
the motto he would recommend to a youth who 
desires to make progress. 

At fourteen ne made his third change, and forsook 
the dismal task of stoking for the healthier and 
brighter work of a telegraph boy. This was his first 
step forward, which he was able to take through the 
kindness of Mr. J. Douglas Reed, a Dunfermline gentle- 
man who had gone out to the States early in life and 
made a name for himself in the telegraph service. 
When he heard that Mr. Carnegie's family had also 
come from far-off Dimfermline, he promised the father 
that he would give "Andy" a berth, and during the 
whole time he was in the telegraph service he did all 
he could to help him forward. 

The changed conditions and healthy environment of 
his new work filled "Andy" with the greatest happi- 
ness. He was like a caged bird set free. Penned up 

17 



i8 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

as he had been in the reeking atmosphere of an engine- 
room, a life in the open air seemed an ideal existence. 
It was, he said, *'a transference from the darkness to 
light, from the desert to paradise." 

When he found himself amidst books and newspapers, 
and was privileged to use pen and ink in the course of 
his daily round, the common task immediately began 
to glow with promise, and he considered himself in his 
new sphere the happiest boy alive. This youthful 
joy was the first evidence of the strong attachment Mr. 
Carnegie has always shown for figures and writing. A 
telegraph office is not the place where one would expect 
to find the germs of literary inspiration, but it was 
while carrying out the duties of telegraph messenger 
that young Carnegie first entertained the hope of some 
day writing articles and books himself. 

Having secured this congenial position, with a salary 
of three dollars a week, he was greatly troubled lest 
he should lose it. He entered upon his new work with 
two drawbacks: his health had been impaired by the 
strain of his former occupation, and he was unac- 
quainted with the commercial quarters of the city — a 
defect which he feared would hinder him in making his 
deliveries. So he set himself to remedy it without 
delay, and eventually overcame the difficulty by calling 
into use his excellent memory. With characteristic 
determination he resolved to learn by heart the names 



STEPPING-STONES 19 

of all the business houses in the principal streets. Soon 
he was able to shut his eyes and repeat in correct order 
the names of the firms on one side of the street and of 
those on the other. " Then," he says, " I felt safe." 

When he had successfully overcome this difficulty 
another presented itself. One of the duties of a tele- 
graph boy in those primitive days was to climb the 
poles whenever a stoppage occurred and bring the 
wire down to be repaired. Try how he would, and he 
tells us he tried very hard, he could not accomplish 
this feat. He was not an expert in athletics, and could 
always place more reliance on his brains than on his 
muscles. 

As it happened, his climbing abilities were never 
put to the test, and he escaped the awful ordeal he 
had so much dreaded. 

A*he way in which the young telegraph messenger 
gained his next promotion is in keeping with his whole 
career. Before the operators arrived in the morning, 
it was the custom of the telegraph boys to practise on 
the instruments by commimicating with other boys 
along the lines. Young Carnegie took full advantage 
of this opportunity, jt "He was by nature well equipped 
for the work, having a marvelous ear for sound and 
being wonderfully expert in distinguishing notes and 
tones. All the messages in those days were read, but 
young Andrew was quick to see the immense advantage 



20 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

of taking them by sound. Mr. J. D. Reed, in his '* His- 
tory of the Telegraph,'* referring to Andrew Carnegie 
at this time, says: ** I liked the boy's looks, and it was 
very easy to see that though he was little he was full 
of spirit. He had not been with me a month when he 
began to ask whether I would teach him to telegraph. 
I began to instruct him, and found him an apt pupil. 
He spent all his spare time in practise, sending and 
receiving by sound, not by tape, as was largely the 
custom in those days. Soon he could do as well as 
nwself." 
JLj^ It was not long ere an opportunity came for Andrew 
/ to use his knowledge. One morning while he was 
practising a death message was signaled from Phila- 
delphia. Death messages were considered of great 
importance, but the opening was too good to be lost, 
and confident in his powers Andrew attended to the 
call. When the operator arrived he found the message 
transcribed, and, moreover, it was perfectly correct. 
This clever piece of work brought young Andrew into 
notice, and proved for him the first stepping-stone to 
success. Shortly afterwards he was promoted to the 
position of an operator, with a salary of three hundred 
dollars a year.^r 

He had long looked forward to the time when he 
should draw such a sum, for he had regarded it as the 
ideal standard of comfort. For a youth of sixteen it 



STEPPING-STONES 21 

was indeed a promising start. This advance came at 
an opportune moment, for his father had recently died, 
and the burden of maintaining the home now fell 
chiefly upon his youthful shoulders. 

The following incident illustrates the confidence 
reposed in him by those with whom he came in contact. 
Pittsburgh had a supply of six newspapers, and they all 
drew their information from the same telegraphic 
service. The copyist offered yoimg Andrew a dollar a 
week if he would do the transcribing. The offer was 
accepted. He had always desired to see some of his 
own handiwork in the papers, and he liked to be brought 
in contact with the young fellows connected with the 
press. The extra dollar a week he thus earned he 
looked upon as ''pure business," inasmuch as it repre- 
sented a transaction entirely on his own account, and 
therefore he felt justified in retaining the remuneration 
for his own use. This was his first bit of capital. 

Everything yotmg Carnegie was set to do he did 
with all his might, and there was no half-heartedness 
or indolence in his work. 

Naturally such a diligent young man could not long 
remain unnoticed in a position which brought him into 
contact with the principal business men of the city. 
One of those who frequently visited the telegraph 
office was Mr. Thomas A. Scott, Superintendent of 
the Pittsburgh Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 



2 2 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

Young Carnegie happened to be the operator through 
whom he sent most of his messages, and his keen eye 
singled him out as a yoimg fellow of unusual promise. 
Accordingly, he spoke to him one day about his 
work, and offered him a situation as operator in the 
service of the railway company at an advance of ten 
dollars per month on the salary he was then receiving. 
Yotmg Carnegie, knowing full well the kind of man 
who had made the offer, promptly accepted it. 

He soon foimd that his new position gave him more 
scope for the development of his gifts and the exercise 
of his energies, and it was not long before he had made 
himself a favorite with his chief and won his confidence 
both as employer and friend. 

/One day Mr. Scott called Andrew aside and informed 
him that an excellent investment was open if he could 
obtain five htmdred dollars. Owing to the death of the 
owner, there was an opportunity to acquire ten shares 
in the Adams Express Company. The shares were 
of the value of sixty dollars each, and Mr. Scott volun- 
teered to advance one himdred dollars if Andrew could 
find the rest. The young operator knew it must be a 
genuine opportunity, as his chief had offered it, and 
his business instinct urged him to accept it. So he an- 
swered "Yes,*' though at the time he had no idea where 
the money was to be foimd. The door had been opened 
for a business investment, and immediate advantage 



STEPPING-STONES 23 

must, he felt, be taken of the golden opportunity. The 
fact that the money was not ready for immediate 
handling did not deter him. He knew there was one 
member f^f the family whose financial genius had 
surmounted many difficulties in the past, and he had 
abtmdant faith that she would devise some scheme for 
procuring the needful sum.^ 

A family council wasJ' held the same evening, and 
when Andrew had explained all, his mother, ever on 
the lookout to help her industrious son, replied: '*It 
must be done. We must mortgage the house. I will 
take the steamer in the morning for Ohio, and see 
uncle and ask him to arrange it." Her ability, pluck 
and resource triumphed. The visit proved successful, 
and the money was obtained. The shares were bought, 
and the little home mortgaged "to give our boy a 
start." 

Mr. Carnegie refers to this incident in glowing terms. 
His mother was the exalted ideal "of his youth, and he 
says he can never adequately express what he owes to 
her constant love and wonderful business sagacity. 
"She succeeded. Where did she ever fail?" he once 
remarked. 

/it was her indefatigable energy, sound judgment 
and strong character which laid the comer-stone of his 
successful career. It is plainly evident that Andrew 
Carnegie inherited his genius for finance and his great 



24 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

commercial ability from his mothey who little thought 
at the time that her boy would one 'day control millions, 
and have at his disposal more hard cash than any other 

%g man. 
lis small transaction was destined to prove the 
forerunner of a long series of gigantic deals. All Mr. 
Carnegie's investments have yielded good returns, but 
this does not by any means signify that any young 
man who can borrow five hundred dollars will lay the 
basis of a great fortune, for, where one speculation 
succeeds, a hundred end in miserable heart-breaking 
failures. Mr. Carnegie was fortunate in making several 
lucr ative investm ents^Jbut his fortune has not been 
amassed by speculation, or gambling; it is the solid 
outcome of hardwork,TndusTfial genius and unflagging 
jgerseverance. He has never boug ht nor SQ ld^.a.share of 
stock on the Exchange.yF 

The Adams Express Company paid monthly divi- 
dends of one per cent., and in due course the young 
investor received his first checque, which gave him 
boundless delight. 

In his new position he took keen interest in his work ; 
step by step he mastered every detail, and gradually 
acquired a comprehensive knowledge of the whole 
system. One morning Mr. Scott was late in arriving 
at the office, and in his absence an accident had occurred 
on one of the lines, and a very critical condition had 



STEPPING-STONES 25 

arisen which needed prompt and decisive action. His 
knowledge enabled Carnegie to grasp the situation at 
once, and he took immediate action. There was only- 
one track, and the freight trains were on the sidings 
along the line, waiting for the express, which had the 
right of way. He wired to the conductor of the express 
that he was going to give the freight trains three hours 
and forty minutes of his time, and asked for a reply. 
He then wired to the conductor of each freight train 
and started the whole of them. The telegrams were 
signed 'Thomas A. Scott." 

Mr. Scott thoroughly appreciated the ability dis- 
played by his yotmg lieutenant. He recognized that 
he could be depended upon at a crisis, and thence- 
forth regarded him as his right-hand man. Andrew 
was now Mr. Scott's private secretary, and gradually 
a strong affection arose between the railway chief 
and his protege. 

When the Civil War broke out Mr. Scott was made 
Assistant-Secretary of War. Andrew Carnegie had 
just entered his twenty-fourth year, and the position 
given him by his chief was a very responsible one. He 
had to see to the transport of the troops and stores, 
and generally to supervise the network of railways 
and telegraphs. The Confederates had already done 
considerable damage, but although the work was 
arduous he manfully stuck to his post, working indef ati- 



26 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

gably night and day. Precision of movement, prompt- 
ness and punctuality in the arrival and departure of 
the traffic, avoidance of muddle, and instant attention 
to stoppages and breakdowns — ^these things required 
a clear head and nerves of steel. 

Curiously enough, although he did no actual fighting 
he was the third man wounded in the war. A tele- 
graph wire which had been pinned to the ground, upon 
being loosened suddenly sprang up and cut a severe 
gash on his cheek, but he did not allow the injury to 
affect his duties. He was present at several battles, 
and at Bull Run was one of the last to leave the field. 
But it was at Washington, in the War Department, 
that he had his most interesting experiences, and it 
was while engaged in his duties there that he inaugu- 
rated a system of telegraphing by ciphers which was 
found to be of invaluable service. 

The carnage, the bloodshed and the devastation of 
the land made so deep an impression upon his mind 
that he has ever since had a horror of war ; in season and 
out of season he has been a strong advocate of peace, 
and the soldier's profession is one which he abhors. 

He had no great liking for his duties, and was not 

sorry when his chief returned to Pittsburgh on June ist, 

18^2. 

•^^Jt^ ^In an endeavor to discover the factors of Mr. 

Carnegie's success, one is struck by the succession of 




n 

O 5 

o 

r- ^ 

•< « 



STEPPING-STONES 27 

opportunities that came to him for making money, and 
the ^isi^i. with which on the one hand he estimated 
their true value, and the ^ron^tnes^ with which on the 
other hand he took advantage of them. The element 
of chance in his investments was reduced to a minimum, 
and he only put his money into ventures with which 
he was practically acquainted. This fact was signally 
demonstrated by his next investment, y^ 
^Shortly after his return from the war, while travel- 
ing on the railway, he was accosted by a strange gentle- 
man who asked him if he was connected with the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company. On hearing that this was 
so, the stranger drew from a bag he was carrying the 
model of a sleeping-car. Mr. Carnegie, in describing 
the incident, says: "He did not need to explain it at 
great length. I seemed to see its value in a flash. 
Railroad cars in which people could sleep on long jour- 
neys — of course there were no railroads across the 
continent yet — struck me as being the very thing for 
this land of magnificent distances. I told him I would 
speak about his model to Mr. Scott, and I did so 
enthusiastically." He went so far in its praise as to 
assert that it was "one of the inventions of the age.'* 
Mr. Scott saw the inventor, and the outcome of the 
negotiations was that two trial cars were run over the 
Pennsylvania Railroad. They proved an encouraging 
success, and it was decided to form a sleeping-car 



28 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

company. Mr. Carnegie was offered an interest, which 
he willingly accepted. 

As on the last occasion, so on this, he was faced with 
the difficulty of providing the necessary funds, which 
in this instance amounted to two hundred and twenty 
dollars. He applied to his bank, and it was a delightful 
surprise to him when the manager, patting him on the 
back, said, **You are all right, Andy," and willingly 
discounted his note. Mr. Carnegie, referring to this 
incident, remarks, "It is a proud day for a man when 
)ft he pays his last note, but not to be named in comparison 
with the day in which he makes his first one, and gets a 
banker to accept it. I have tried both and know." 
The investment proved a lucrative one, and Mr. 
Carnegie was enabled to pay the subsequent calls on 
his stock out of the dividends distributed. The com- 
pany was eventually absorbed by the Pullman Palace 
Car Company. 

This transaction put Mr. Carnegie in possession of his 
first substantial sum of capital. Shortly afterwards 
he received his last promotion as an employee by his 
appointment to be superintendent of the Pittsburgh 
Division of the Pennsylvania Railroady 



Fortune's Flood 



CHAPTER III 

FORTUNE'S FLOOD 

THE results accruing from his investment in the 
Woodruff Sleeping Car Company, added to his 
weekly savings, placed Mr. Carnegie in possession of a 
fair sum of money. He had repaid all the loans re- 
ceived from his mother and his banker, and was now 
free to make what use he thought best of his moderate 
capital ; nor had he long to wait before an opening was 
afforded for this. Andrew Carnegie "struck oil," and 
struck it to some purpose. From that profitable source 
he extracted a return that far exceeded his utmost 
expectations. He got in almost at the beginning of the 
mineral oil boom, when the vast possibilities of the in- 
dustry were little understood, and the great utility of 
the product had not been discovered. In conjunction 
with some friends, he subscribed toward the purchase 
of the now famous Storey Farm, on Oil Creek, which 
was bought for the sum of forty thousand dollars. At 
that time the oil was running into a creek where lay 
some flat-bottomed scows which were fitted up for its 
conveyance. Upon a certain day each week the creek 
was flooded by means of a temporary dam, and these 

31 



32 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

scows were floated down to the Alleghany River. The 
well was then producing one hundred barrels daily, but 
Mr. Carnegie doubted if this output could be main- 
tained. It was therefore decided to store up a large 
reserve, which it was hoped would command a high 
price in the time of expected scarcity. For this purpose 
a reservoir was made with a capacity of 100,000 barrels, 
or 3,300,000 gallons. This was filled, and its contents 
were valued at $1,000,000, but as the reservoir leaked 
very badly and large losses occurred through evapora- 
tion oil was still allowed to run into it. Time went on, 
thousands of barrels were sold, but still to the surprise 
of the proprietors the supply seemed as plentiful as ever, 
and at last some idea of the extent of the real resources 
of their property dawned upon them. The well, or 
rather the shares in it, reached a value on the Stock 
Exchange of $5,000,000, and in one year the syndicate 
paid the handsome sum of $1,000,000 in cash divi- 
dends — certainly an astonishing return on an invest- 
ment of $40,000. 

When he joined in this oil venture Mr. Carnegie was 
twenty-seven years of age, but though oil has made 
more than one millionaire, it was not destined to be the 
means by which he was to amass his fortune. Leaving 
the oil springs to his contemporary, Mr. Rockefeller, he 
turned his energies in another direction. He had not 
long been in his new position of Superintendent on 



FORTUNE'S FLOOD 33 

the Pittsburgh Division of the Pennsylvania Raihoad, 
when the company began to make some experiments 
with an iron bridge. Up to this time bridges had been 
made of wood, and the Pennsylvania Railroad was the 
first to give a trial to another material. The experi- 
ment was completely successful, and ^aye rise to much 
thought in the mind of Mr. Carnegie. ^?here had been 
so many delays on the railways through bridges being 
burned or broken, that he had long ago come to the 
conclusion that cast iron or some other tough non- 
inflammable material would have to displace wood in 
their construction; and after thoroughly considering 
the matter, he came to the conclusion that there was a 
great opening for a firm that could manufacture the 
parts for iron bridges/ 

As usual, he had no sooner convinced himself that 
the idea was sound and promising, than he commenced 
to look around for ways and means to put his plans 
into operation. No time was to be lost. The future 
steel manufacturer was fully alive to the truth 
embodied in Shakespeare's famous lines — 

"There is a tide in the affairs of men 
Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune." 

He formed another syndicate and started the Key- 
stone Bridge Works, ^he first large piece of work done 
by the firm was to build the great bridge over the Ohio 
River, which has a span of three htmdred feet. As Mr. 



34 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

Carnegie had foreseen, the substitution of iron for 
wood became general, both in bridge building and in 
many other directions, and the Keystone Company 
had soon largely to extend its works for increased 
production. Thus was laid the foundation of what are 
to-day the finest iron and steel works in the world/"/ 

For many years Mr. Carnegie had aspired to* enter 
business on his own account, and to be the employer 
of thousands of work-people ; and when he felt satisfied 
that the prosperity of the new company was assured, 
he resigned his post with the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Company, in whose service he had risen from telegraph 
operator to divisional superintendent. Having relin- 
quished his official duties, he was free to concentrate 
all his energy and genius on the development of his own 
business, and give full play to his marvelous powers 
of organization.^^radually the superior merits of iron 
bridges became widely known. [ The Keystone Com- 
pany were the first in the field, and as they enjoyed 
an excellent reputation for first-class workmanship 
and prompt delivery, they soon reaped a rich harvestj 
Orders flowed in from all quarters, and the increase of 
business has continued without a break right up to the 
present time./ 

hMUclq success of the Keystone Bridge Works was 
achieved through the most progressive business 
methods and by the boldest and most enterprising inno- 



FORTUNE'S FLOOD 35 

vationSw/ Mr. Carnegie has always been a man of great 
commercial daring, although no one could charge him 
with recklessness, for all his ventures have been pre- 
ceded by thorough examination, and consideration of \ 
the prospects of success. Once having convinced him- 
self of the value of an innovation or the soundness of a 
scheme, he never wavered in his purpose, but, confident 
in his ability, and encouraged by past successes, set 
himself to carry his enterprises through to a triumphant 
is^Af Calling to his aid every force that could help 
him in any way, and perfecting his organization at every 
point, he was prompt to avail himself of the discoveries 
of science^^fHis works have always been equipped with 
the most up-to-date machinery, while he has met the 
large and continuous increase of business with corre- 
spondingly large extensions of his works. All this was 
accomplished only by the most resolute determination, 
for he had constant difficulties to contend with. His 
credit, however, was good. He had succeeded so far 
with everything he had undertaken, and this fact 
aided him in overcoming the greatest obstacle to his 
progress, namely, the raising of capital. 

Mr. Carnegie's next great effort, and the one that 
lifted him into the position of the foremost iron and 
steel producer in the world, was prompted by a dis- 
covery which he made when on a visit to England. This 
was in the year 1868, just at the time when the Bessemer 



36 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

invention had emerged from the experimental stage 
into an accepted workable process of incalculable 
value to the industrial world. Mr. Carnegie, of course, 
had his hand on it in an instant. He learned that in 
many directions, especially in rails, iron was rapidly 
being displaced by the steel produced by this new 
process. To a large iron founder this was a matter of 
vital importance. The necessity for substituting steel 
for iron in the manufacture of rails had been recognized 
for some time by railway experts/^ Mr. Carnegie him- 
self, when in the service of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Company, had suggested a process for hardening iron 
rails by carbon, precisely the same as the Harvey pro- 
cess. The company spent $20,000 on the experiment, 
which was attended with excellent results, for the rails 
turned out were a great improvement on the old ones, 
and gave great satisfaction. But^he steel rails pro- 
duced by the Bessemer process were an altogether 
superior product, and Mr. Carnegie recognized that he 
must at once adopt that process in his works. Accord- 
ingly he acquired all the necessary knowledge and 
equipment, and immediately returned to America to 
commence operations by the erection of an enormous 
plant for the Bessemer process of steel manufacture. 
As he had been practically the first in America to recog- 
nize the immense superiority of iron over wood for 
certain purposes, so now he was the first to realize the 



FORTUNE'S FLOOD ■ .^ 37 

great superiority of steel over Kxory J ustas ne had 
reaped a rich harvest through his foresight in being 
ready to turn out iron bridges, so now he reaped an even 
richer harvest in being prepared to supply the sudden 
demand for steel rails^-^ 

In mentioning England as the source from whence 
this "Steel King'* drew his inspiration to launch out 
in the direction of steel production, one cannot help 
being struck with the keen irony of the circumstance 
in the light of present day competition. At this time 
America had not the slightest chance in competition 
with Britain for the markets of the world, and thousands 
of tons of iron and steel were exported to the United 
States by Britain despite the high tariff duties. Mr. 
Carnegie had little hope that America could compete 
with England in neutral markets, and none that she 
could eclipse her. Writing in 1883, he expressed the 
following opinion: '*Aj2ieriGar>caxLii]lly_^nder herself 
.ridiculous by entering the„.water. That is England's 
domain. The first cost of a steel ship is about one-half 
on the Clyde what it is on the Delaware. Steel can be 
made, and is made, in Great Britain for one-half of its 
cost here. Not in our day will it be wise for America 
to leave the land. It is a very fair division as it stands — 
the land for America, the sea for England." Nineteen 
years later, while Mr. Carnegie is still expecting a long 
lease of life, Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan has surprised 



38 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

England and the world at large by acquiring for Ameri- 
can interests a mercantile marine of great ships of 
several lines. Mr. Carnegie's remarks in 1883 show 
how utterly in the dark even the most far-seeing of 
America's industrial leaders were regarding the vast 
potentialities of their country. 

y/^The developments brought about by this introduction 
of the Bessemer steel process were so promising that 
Mr. Carnegie found himself face to face with a remark- 
able situation. He had now reached the supreme crisis 
in his career. Whatever course he decided to adopt, 
either that of resting on his oars or of pressing forward 
to further progress, was almost certain to bring him 
great wealth. He elected to advance and extend. 
The next step he took was destined to revolutionize 
the industrial methods of the world, and to put him 
on the road to the acquirement of such a fortune as 
would astonish mankind. A new era in industrial 
history was at hand, and why should he not head the 

Y^vance \/ 

I /^ close study of the position convinced him that no 
country in the world could better take advantage of 
the Bessemer process than the United States, with its 
vast undeveloped mineral resources and its phenomenal 
industrial growth. He drew up a scheme as com- 
prehensive as it was daring. This involved nothing 
less than the erection of more great works and the 



FORTUNE'S FLOOD 39 

acquisition of his own coal and iron fields and of his 
own transport facilities. It shows the indomitable 
spirit of the man, and the intensity of his ambition, that 
although already the possessor of a forttme, he should 
risk all in grappling with such a mighty venture as thi^ 
Never before had he shown such energy and determina- 
tion. Neither money nor labor was spared in the 
building of the vast premises now called the Edgar 
Thompson Steel Works, across the Monongahela River 
from Homestead. The most skilled engineers available 
were employed in equipping the works with the finest 
plant money could buy; and to supplement this he 
acquired vast tracts of land containing immeasurable 
mineral resources. He had to go from 700 to 
900 miles away, to the shores of the Great 
Lakes, in order to procure the bulk of his properties. 
He followed this up by purchasing a fleet of steamers 
to transport the ore across the Great Lakes; and by 
building his own railway of about 425 miles to carry it 1 
down to his works round Pittsburgh. "W 

All the world knows how splendidly this courageous 
enterprise was rewarded. /The superiority of steel 
rails over those made from iron was speedily acknowl- 
edged, and Mr. Carnegie was simply overwhelmed with 
orders. /Vast as his output was, it was totally inade- 
quate 'to meet the demand. What he had thought 
were ample preparations turned out to be altogether 



40 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

insufficient.^,^Ie was now determined to become the 
undisputed master of the steel market, and to shrink 
from no responsibiHty in order to maintain his lead. 

r It was imperative that h^ should largely increase his 
productive capacity^^Y He" nad to "strike while the 
iron was hot/* and could not wait for the erection of 
fresh works. .>ile therefore turned his attention to the 
premises of a rival concern, The Homestead Steel Com- 
pany, whose enormous foundries were close to his 
own works, and opened up negotiations with these 
competitors which resulted in their absorption by the 
Carnegie combination. --5^t her extensions and acquisi- 
tions were made until, in 1888, Mr. Carnegie possessed 
no less than seven great iron and steel works, besides 
his vast coal fields, iron mines, railways, docks and 
Jieets of steamers^ 

— - Two hundred and fifty million dollars is a stupendous 
sum, but when one considers the unique position Mr. 
Carnegie obtained in the greatest industry in the world, 
it is not surprising that he succeeded in amassing even 
such a colossal fortune. He appeared with his mag- 
nificent manufacturing facilities just at the period 
when the prosperity of America was in its infancy. The 
unparalleled railway extension in the country had 
scarcely commenced ; great towns were springing up on 
all sides, and in every direction enormous quantities 



FORTUNE'S FLOOD 41 

of iron and steel were needed for structural purposes. 
He had reduced the cost of production to a minimum. 
By means of his railway and steamboat services he had 
brought his mineral resources within easy access of his 
foundries, and had acquired every tool and_process 
necessary to manipulate with his own materials, and 
by his own workmen, the rough ore into the finished 
product. He was thus well able to defy competition 
from any quarter, and having secured the home trade, 
he stepped forward to invade the markets of the world. 
He extended his trade on all sides; but vast as his 
volume of business was, and rapid as his progress had 
been, he was able, through his wonderful organization, 
to keep his business thoroughly under control, so that 
his profits leaped ahead at a corresponding rate. It 
was a glorious triumph for skilful organization and 
dying enterprise^/^ 

/it is difiicult to realize the full extent of this mighty 
' achievement and the influence it has exerted on the 
progress of the world. No one can deny such a man 
a tribute of the highest admiration. He is a genius in \ 
the most exact sense of the word, and he has used his / 
gifts and powers to stimulate to a remarkable degree 
the forward march of civiHzation. Mr. Carnegie 
takes his place among those giants of humanity who, 
by the heights of their attainments, have lifted to a 



42 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

higher plane the possibilities of man, and have forced 
a point upward the human standard of excellence, 
from which succeeding generations will start forward 
to further progress. 



The Steel Master 



CHAPTER IV 

THE STEEL MASTER 



M 



iron and steel, towered head and shoulders 



/ TV yf^' CARNEGIE, as the undisputed monarch of 

above all his rivals. He was the chief of a trade com- 
bination that enjoyed the distinction of being the larg- 
est employer of labor in the world/ The Carnegie Steel 
Company, which was reconstructed at the beginning of 
1900 with a capital of $100,000,000, owned three im- 
mense- works — ^the Homestead, the Edgar Thompson 
and the Duquesne, and seven smaller ones./ When in 
full swing it is estimated that this huge concern gave 
employment to no less than 45,000 work-people, and if 
we reckon the small average of five members to a family 
it means that this one firm controlled the happiness of 
over 225,000 persons. / The works at Homestead alone 
covered seventy-five acres of land and employed nearly 
4,000 men. One who has visited these works says: 
"On first viewing Homestead two thoughts are forced 
upon a mind of mechanical bent, namely, the vast 
wealth necessary to build, equip and run a plant of 
such magnitude ; and the ingenuity and skill required 
to deviseand manage it.' * /The works were managed by 

45 



46 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

experienced men of great ability, and the workmen were 
a highly skilled body second to none in the country^/ 
It was Mr. Carnegie's habit to have mailed to him, 
whatever part of the world he might be, a tabulated 
form ingeniously devised, containing the details of the 
total product for the day of each and every department 
of the business. In this way he was able to keep in 
constant touch with the affairs of the firm. Every 
Monday a meeting of the members of the firm was held, 
all important matters were discussed and decided upon 
there, and full minutes of each meeting were regularly 
sent to any absent member. As Mr. Carnegie lived in 
New York, this plan kept him well informed on all 
plans of action. 

The Homestead mill manufactured armor plates 
for the ships for the navy and all kinds of structural 
material. It contained twenty open-hearth furnaces 
and two ten-ton Bessemer converters having a daily 
product of 3,000 tons of steel ingots, which were used 
in the manufacture of a great variety of articles, from 
the steel rims of a bicycle to the 200-ton armor 
plates of a battleship. Here also were constructed the 
gigantic steel frames for many buildings, and par- 
ticularly for ** sky-scrapers." In the manufacturing 
processes electricity plays an important part. This 
valuable force was used as the motive-power for moving 
huge blocks of material and in a hundred and one 



THE STEEL MASTER 47 

other ways. Masses weighing two hundred tons and 
more were handled with ease by the electric machines, 
all of which were fed from a single station, whence 
wires extended, like the arteries in the human body, 
to the different departments. The workmen became 
accustomed to the use of the electric agent and handled 
it as confidently as they would steam or water. In 
every respect the machinery was of the most modern 
description, and was supplemented in every possible 
manner by the latest devices of scientific discovery. 

Next in importance to the Homestead were the 
Edgar Thompson Steel Works, situated on the other 
side of the river. These were chiefly devoted to the 
production of pig-iron and the manufacture of steel 
rails. The furnaces had a daily output of 2,800 tons of 
pig-iron, a large part of which was used on the premises, 
and the remainder transferred to Homestead. The 
rail mill was perhaps the finest in the world, and was 
capable of producing 1,600 tons of steel rails per day. 
The third large foundry, the Duquense, on the 
Monongahela River, had furnaces that produced 
in one day as much as the largest furnaces thirty 
years ago produced in a week. They had a capacity 
for daily converting 2,000 tons of pig-iron into billets, 
rails, sheets, bars, etc. 

In addition to these vast works under Mr. Camegie*s 
control, there were the wire and nail mills at Beaver 



48 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

Falls ; the structural works at Pittsburgh ; the Isabella 
furnaces ; the Lucy furnaces ; and the Keystone Bridge 
Works. Another branch of the Carnegie combination 
was the Frick Coke Company, which was the largest of 
its kind in the world. It owned coal-bearing lands to 
the extent of 40,000 acres, and in addition possessed 
more than two-thirds of the famous Connellsville coal- 
fields. It had an operating plant consisting of 10,500 
ovens with a possible daily output of 20,000 tons. 
Every day a line of railway trucks five miles long con- 
veyed the product to the various foundries of the firm.* 
The Carnegie combination also owned vast tracts of 
land, including the richest iron ore mines on Lake 
Superior. It possessed a special fleet of steamers for the 
transport of the ore from the mines on Lake Superior 
to Cleveland on Lake Erie, a distance of over 
700 miles, and had laid its own private railway to 
take the ore from Cleveland down to its various works 
round Pittsburgh. The company possessed a large 
extent of natural gas bearing land, from which the gas 
was conveyed in pipes to the furnaces. It had a private 
telegraph system, and its wires ran to all the important 
industrial centres of the country. Branch offices of the 
firm were to be found in all the large cities of America, 
and its total clerical staff was so numerous that at the 

* Whese figures were compiled some years ago. The productions 
of all the Carnegie properties have largely increased since. 



THE STEEL MASTER 49 

head office, Pittsburgh, a hundred and fifty clerks could 
take a vacation at one time without causing any dis- 
organization of the system. 

Xl'he plant of the Carnegie works was capable of pro- 
ducing an annual output in steel alone of 3,000,000 
tons, of which about two-thirds would be open-hearth 
steel. This Titanic concern was held together by 
the most perfect organization, in which the highest 
degree of skill was employed./ 

Here are a few facts to illustrate the wonderful 
administration of this vast industry. It was possible 
to transport ore from the shores of Lake Superior to 
Pittsburgh, nearly a thousand miles away, and convert 
it into steel in ten days, despite the fact that three 
separate shipments have to be made ! Some of the 
open mines at Lake Superior were capable of special 
treatment, and for digging the ore in these steam 
shovels were used. One of these shovels could load 
a 2 5 -ton car in two and one-half minutes. The 
shovel picked up five tons of earth at every stroke, 
and filled the car in five operations. 

At Duluth, the western head of Lake Superior, 
there were two loading jetties, each 2,000 feet 
long, and rows of ore bins built into these, each 
holding from 150 to 170 tons. The railroad ran 
over these bins, and dropped down their loads 
of twenty-five tons, to be subsequently shot into 



50 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

the holds of the ships. At these docks ore was 
shipped at the rate of i,ooo to i,6oo tons per vessel 
per hour. A 6,000-ton vessel, equal to the capacity 
of 750 8-ton cars, could be loaded with ore 
in six hours or less. From the Lake Superior 
district 17,000,000 tons were shipped in 1899. The 
railway traffic from the ore-receiving ports to the 
smelting furnaces, in some cases extending to 700 
miles, was carried on by mammoth locomotives, 
some weighing 127 tons each, hauling 1,600 tons of 
ore in thirty cars — great steel trucks specially built 
to carry about fifty tons apiece. 

At the mills the blast-furnaces were served by 
a hoisting engine controlled by a single indi- 
vidual. Here also the Wellman-Seaver electrical 
charging machines were used. This is the latest 
mechanical triumph of its kind, relieving human sinew 
and muscle of the strain and tension of heavy work 
amid the terrible heat of the smelting furnaces. It 
traveled on rails past the rows of furnaces, and the 
attendant, comfortably seated, merely moved an 
electrical switch which actuated a powerful arm of 
steel. This took charge of pig-iron, scrap and ore, 
which it deposited inside the furnaces. The machine 
fed furnace after furnace with their requirements of 
half a ton at a time in a few seconds each. The doors 
of the furnaces were opened and closed by water power. 



THE STEEL MASTER 51 

And so one might continue to enumerate the vast 
resources and the wonderful armory of this industrial 
Im^g. 

-;^Such a magnificent aggregation of industrial power 
has never before been under the dominion of a single 
man. / This vast organization, with its army of skilled 
workmen, was the great stumbling-block to the pro- 
moters when they first schemed to create a Steel Trust 
of such magnitude as would enable them to dominate 
the markets of the world. The properties under Mr. 
Carnegie's control were too great and the value of them 
too fully realized to allow of easy adjustment of owner- 
ship. The amounts offered Mr. Carnegie by the Trust / 
organizers were entirely out of proportion to the value 1^ 
of the property and the negotiations fell through for 
the time. 

Mr. Carnegie announced his intention of equipping / 
enormous works at Conneaut, Ohio, at a cost of 
$15,000,000, to be devoted to special competition with 
the products of the Trust. He also decided to build up 
another steel mill which should surpass in capacity any- ^ 
thing in existence. As for the Trust's control of the \ 
railways, he boldly declared that he would construct J 
his own services. 

This mood, characteristic of the man, showed more 
clearly than anything else could his confidence in his 
properties, and brought out in strong relief the value 



52 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

of the steel plants. The absolute necessity became 
evident that they must be included in the combination, 
and an offer was made Mr. Carnegie for his interests 
which, though so great as to be almost inconceivable, 
is believed to be in proper proportion to their value. 
Mr. Carnegie sold out on his own terms. He received 
for his interest $250,000,000 of bonds on the Trust's 
properties, bearing interest at the rate of five per cent, 
per annum. 

In an address to the people of Pittsburgh, Mr. 
Carnegie explained the reasons that had prompted him 
to retire from business, as follows : * 'An opportunity to 
retire from business came to me unsought, which I con- 
sidered it my duty to accept. My resolve was made in 
youth to retire before old age. From what I have seen 
around me, I cannot doubt the wisdom of this course, 
although the change is great, even serious, and seldom 
brings the happiness expected. But this is because so 
many, having abundance to retire upon, have so little 
to retire to. I have always felt that old age should be 
spent, not as the Scotch say, in 'makin' mickle mair,* 
but in making a good use of what has been acquired, 
and I hope my friends at Pittsburgh will approve of my 
action in retiring while still in full health and vigor, and 
I can reasonably expect many years for usefulness in 
fields which have other than personal aims." 

It must not be understood for one moment that 



THE STEEL MASTER • 53 

Mr. Carnegie's opposition to the Trust was actuated in 
the slightest degree by any personal objection to the. 
formation of these mammoth imdertakings. The / 
Carnegie Company, of which he was the head, was in K ^ 
its way a huge combination ; and on many occasions C 
he has expressed the opinion that trusts are a great \ 
benefit to the community, and are simply a result_y 
of the advance of human enterprise. 

So late as May, 1901, he said: "All these consoli- 
dations of steel trusts, railways and steamship lines 
are steps in advance of still greater movements which 
will distinguish the twentieth century. This unifica- 
tion of transport by sea and land is a mark of genu- 
ine world-progress. Hereafter American railway lines 
will be under one interest from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific, and one management in New York will be able 
to fix rates to meet the situation. In a short time the 
great tnmk railways will own steamship lines on the 
Pacific and Atlantic, thus consolidating transport on 
land and sea, and the business of the world will be 
carried on with but little division. It would be 
unwise not to promote these movements.'* 

There is much shrewd common sense in these 
remarks, but the growth of these gigantic combinations 
has been so rapid that widespread suspicion exists as 
to their soundness. If their main object is to be 
to gain a monopoly, then they deserve to fail, for 



54 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

monopolies are often an industrial evil both to the 
work-people and to the community at large. 
>^In surveying the phenomenal success of Mr. Carnegie, 
one's curiosity is aroused as to the instruments he em- 
ployed to attain it and the means by which he exer- 
cised control over his extensive interests. The most 
important factor has undoubtedly been his consummate 
genius for organization, and almost on a par with this 
J3aust-be-pl aced hi s remarkable -insiglj t into human 
nature. ^Mr. Carnegie himself attributes his success 
chiefiv to the, hand nf r.lftver young men which he 
gathered roimd hini. He has an unbotmded belief in 
young men, and he has never been afraid to intrust 
them with the most important duties. ''It is astonish- 
ing," he says, "what a young man can do if he is only 
trusted." His method has been to keep a keen^ 
lookout for any young fellows of exceptional ability, r 
whether in his own employ or in the employ oi^ 
others. ^And rarely did ^ his iudgm ent_ fai^^him. 
Scores^ of we althy men in America to-day owe the ir^ 
p osition to Andrew Carnegie's timely enc ouragement^^ 

Mr. H. C. Frick, one of the foremost men in tKe 
commercial world to-day, is one of those whom Mr. 
Carnegie credited with the making of a first-class busi- 
ness man, and he took him from the employ of another 
firm and gave him a position in his own organization. 
Another instance is that of a young fellow who served 



THE STEEL MASTER 55 

behind a shop counter in Dunfermline. He sent him 
to Pittsburgh and gave him the usual opportunities to 
distinguish himself. The young man rose rapidly, was 
finally admitted into partnership, and is now a rich 
man. Perhaps the most striking tribute to Mr. 
Carnegie's perceptive faculty is Mr. Schwab, who is 
now receiving an enormous salary as manager of the 
new steel trust, the United States Steel Corporation. 
He entered Mr. Carnegie's service as a boy, and by 
his extraordinary smartness and his rare capacity 
for work he attracted the attention of his employer. 
He had neither capital nor influence, but he had merit, 
and he steadily advanced, each new promotion reveal- 
ing in him greater ability, until he attained the highest 
position in the greatest industrial concern and was 
president of the company before he reached thirty. 
These are the men who formed Mr. Carnegie's working^ 
cabinet. 

It is hard to define in exact terms the power which 
Mr. Carnegie had of stimulating his subordinates and 
infusing them with his own consuming enthusiasm. 
He had a perfect genius for discovering young men of 
exceptional ability, and, having secured them, they 
were given a fair chance to prove their worth. No 
favoritism of any kind was allowed, all promotion 
being solely by merit. His first partner, David A. 
Stewart, and his brother, Tom Carnegie, both had 



56 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

grown-up sons, but none of these young men were 
admitted to the concern, and at death their parents* 
interests were paid out. "Dead heads" were a luxury 
never tolerated in the Carnegie Company. Having 
worked his own way in the world, Mr. Carnegie knew 
how best to encourage a deserving youth. *'Respon- 
sibiHty," he once said, ''thrown upon a young man, 
that is the thing to bring out what is in him." But 
he insisted that the youth himself should be thoroughly 
interested in his work, and be animated with a strong 
desire to succeed. "Concentration," he says, "is my 
motto — first honesty, then industry, then concentra^ 
-tiQrCL_and^he expected it to be the motto of hi^ 
employees. If they did not give their whole energies 
to their work they lost their places or were degraded. 
Each new man had to maintain the standard of excel- 
lence reached by his predecessor. Mere mediocrity 
and languid interest were not tolerated. 

On the other hand, hard and conscientious work 
was promptly and handsomely rewarded, and when 
a subordinate was appointed to the position of a 
manager, Mr. Carnegie maintained that the test of 
his ability was not what he did himself, but what he 
could get others to do in cooperation with him. " The 
great manager," he said, "is the man who knows how 
to surround himself with men much abler than himself. 
I have always found that a manager of one of our great 



THE STEEL MASTER 57 

works has been able to make excellent managers out of 
material which before his magic touch was quite 
mediocre. He inspires his subordinates to almost 
superhuman efforts." 

It was men of this caliber that were given a stake in 
the business in the shape of stock, or who were pro- 
moted to be partners. They worked together, heart 
and soul, for a common interest, and Mr. Carnegie is 
proud of the fact that he has never had occasion to 
exercise his authority over any one of them. He 
pays to these talented, ambitious young fellows an 
unqualified tribute of admiration — 

"I do not believe any one man can make a success 
of a business nowadays. I am sure I never could have 
done so without my partners, of whom I had thirty- 
two, the brightest and cleverest young fellows in the 
world. All are equal to each other, as the members of 
the Cabinet are equal. The chief must only be first 
among equals. I know that every one of my partners 
would have smiled at the idea of my being his superior, 
although the principal stockholder. The way they 
differed from me and beat me many a time was 
delightful to behold. I never enjoyed anything more 
than to get a sound thrashing in an argument at the 
hands of these young geniuses. No man will make a 
great business who wants to do it all himself or to get 
all the credit for doing it. I believe firmly in youths 



58 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

as executive agents. Older heads should be reserved 
for counsel." 

An English writer has called attention to this and 
says that *'Mr. Carnegie sets an example that British 
employers might well take note of. There can be no 
doubt that to this practice of placing young men in 
responsible positions is largely due the enterprise and 
progress of American commerce.'* 

The power of organization and the faculty of 
recognizing and developing dependable assistants 
contributed largely to Mr. Carnegie's success. 



As an Employer of Labor 



CHAPTER V 

AS AN EMPLOYER OF LABOR 

/Y^ PINION regarding Mr. Carnegie as an employer 
V^ of labor is sharply divided. On the one hand 
he is looked upon as a man who has violated in practice 
all the excellent theory that he has written on the sub- 
ject ; and, on the other hand, it is asserted that he has 
done everything possible for his work-people compatible 
with the maintenance of his business in the face of fierce 
competition. 

In attempting to review Mr. Carnegie's record in this 
respect, it is of the first importance to take into con- 
sideration the conditions of capital and labor that 
existed in the United States during his career/ The 
policy of an employer in America and the policy of an 
employer in England must be judged from different 
standpoints, for the two are on a totally different foot- 
ing with their employees and have to contend with 
an entirely diverse environment /in America, even at 
the present time, employers and employees are often 
at variance, and during Mr. Carnegie's time, ten to 
twenty years ago, the period with which we are con- 
cerned, the antagonism between the two was much 
more intense than it is to-da¥f 



62 ANDREW CARNEGIE 



^ 



The set purpose of the employers naturally was to 
extract from their workmen the maximum of labor 
at the minimum of cost, both in wages and accommo- 
dation. The avowed object of the workmen was to 
obtain the highest wages and the shortest hours possible, 
and to work no harder than was necessary. Each party 
was aware of the intentions of the other, and conse- 
quently each watched every move of the other keenly. 
Wrecking tactics by the one side at the time strikes 
were in progress were followed by swift punishment. 
But in the main the weakest had gone to the wall, and 
the workman was under the heel of his employer, 
though occasionally, being supported by public opinion, 
the workman won./ 

''•Such a state of distrust between capital and labor 
could only be regarded as deplorable in the extreme by 
a man of the temperament of Mr. Carnegie, who has 
always been astute enough to recognize that good feel- 
ing between master and workman is essential for the 
highest prosperity of both. He considers that nothing 
pays so well in business as generous treatment and 
mutual good-wilL His experience, he says, goes to 
prove that V the firm which has a reputation for taking 
the best care of its men has the best chance, because the 
best men will gravitate to that firm and stay with it/^^ 
Mr. Carnegie's prime prescription for smooth working 
in the industrial arena is the copartnership principle, 



AS AN EMPLOYER OF LABOR 63 

but as that was not practicable he advocated the next 
best thing, namely, the sliding-scale arrangement of 
remiineration. This part of his theory he put into prac- 
tice in his own works. The scale there was based 
on the price of the product. Once a month a com- 
mittee approved by the men met, and before this com- 
mittee was laid all the information necessary to enable 
it to estimate what prices the firm would obtain. An 
average price was then agreed upon, and this formed 
the basis for the wages for the ensuing month. 

Of course, the weakness of this system is that, as 
circumstances change, differences arise regarding the 
fairness of the percentage of remuneration on the price 
of the products, and in this respect it is little better 
than the old method. Its great advantage lies in the 
fact that it brings masters and men into contact and 
tends to promote mutual self-respect. Whenever 
they do come together on such occasions, Mr.Camegie 
holds that the employer, being the better trained and 
more cultured party, should exercise great forbearance 
in regard to the men's behavior. If they are rough 
and surly in their manners, and at times somewhat 
arrogant in their bearing, he should overlook this as the 
outcome of their inferior education and mode of life. 
He also thinks that it is not too much to expect men 
entrusted with the management of great properties 
to devote some part of their time to searching out any 



V 



64 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

causes of discontent among their employees, and, 
having satisfied themselves that they are genuine, to 
meet the men more than half-way in an endeavor to 
settle them. 

/' But he insisted on the men doing their best. They 
must work and work hard. He tolerates no slackness. 
Idlers are an abomination to him. He is convinced 
that a state of regular labor is the best possible con- 
dition for the human race, and produces the best citi- 
zen. He honors the laborer far above the aristocrat. 
** The lot of a skilled workman," he says, " is far better 
than that of the heir to an hereditary title, who is very 
likely to lead an unhappy, wicked life." Mr. Carnegie 
was once asked his views on the "too old at forty" 
problem. He replied: "A man at forty who is in 
search of something to do has a prima facie case against 
him. Long before he is forty he should have shown 
himself to be indispensable and received either a high 
salary or an interest in the business. Of course, there 
are exceptional cases where a worthy man is suddenly 
deprived of work at forty. His is a sad case indeed." 
He does not advise workmen in comfortable circum- 
stances to emigrate and take great risks. If a man can 
make thirty shillings a week in his native land, Mr. 
Carnegie thinks he would be very foolish to leave it, 
unless he is impelled by an uncontrollable ambition 
and has no ties to bind him. Even though men may 



AS AN EMPLOYER OF LABOR 65 

be fortunate enough to earn higher wages, very likely 
the conditions of life will not suit them and they will 
become dissatisfied. "Look before you leap" is the 
adyice he offers. 

/Thus far we have studied Mr. Carnegie in theory/^ 
/Wow let us see how he has put all these admirable 
sentiments and unimpeachable principles into practice./ 
The best test that can be applied is the condition of 
labor surrounding his own workmen. Mr. Hamlin 
Garland, a well-known writer, though having no 
technical experience, describes the impressions he re- 
ceived from a visit to the Homestead works, - His train- 
ing as a novelist naturally impelled him to look at 
things from the descriptive writer's point of view, and 
not become interested in the picturesque, both horrible 
and attractive. In his approach to Homestead Mr. 
Garland was struck by the desolate appearance of the 
district, and the wretchedness of the town itself, he 
says, was deplorable. "The streets were horrible; 
the buildings were poor; the sidewalks were sunken 
and full of holes; and the crossings were formed of 
sharp-edged stones like rocks in a river bed. Every- 
where the yellow mud of the streets lay kneaded into 
sticky masses, through which groups of pale, lean men 
slouched in faded garments, grimy with the soot and 
dirt of the mills. The town was as squalid as could 
well be imagined, and the people were mainly of the 



66 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

discouraged and sullen type to be found everywhere 
where labor passes into the brutalizing stage of 
severity."' 

These' depressing conditions are apparently insepar- 
able from a newly established iron or steel mill in any 
locality, and this is specially true where soft coal is 
used. Grime, heat, hard, exhausting labor, these are 
conditions that are to be found in every steel mill, and 
the works of the Carnegie Company differed little from 
other manufactories of the same kind except in extent, 
but it may be truly said that the larger the mill the 
mpre depressing the conditions. 

/f After commenting on the muggy, smoke-laden atmos- 
phere, he proceeds to describe the conditions inside the 
mills, and the men engaged at their tasks, and tells 
us that they worked with a sort of desperate attention 
and alertness. 

"That looks like hard work," I said to one of them 
to whom my companion introduced me. He was 
breathing hard from his labor. 

*' Hard ! I guess it's hard. I lost forty pounds the 
first three months I came into the business. It sweats 
the life out of a man. I often drink two buckets of 
water in twelve hours; the sweat drips through my 
sleeves, and runs down my legs and fills my shoes." 

"But that isn't the worst of it," said my guide, a 
former employee. " It's a dog's life. Now those men 



AS AN EMPLOYER OF LABOR 67 

work twelve hours, and sleep and eat out ten more. 
You can see a man don't have much time for anything 
else. You can't see your friends or do anything but 
work. That's why I got out of it. I used to come 
home so exhausted, staggering like a man with a 

Again and again he is impressed with the general 
appearence of exhaustion that is shown in the haggard 
faces of the toilers, and he says " their work is of the 
sort that hardens and coarsens.** Everywhere in the 
enormous sheds were pits gaping like the mouth of hell, 
and ovens emitting a terrible degree of heat, with grimy 
men filling and lining them. One man jumps down, 
works desperately for a few minutes, and is then pulled 
up, exhausted. Another immediately takes his place; 
there is no hesitation. When he spoke to the men 
they laughed. It was winter when he made his visit. 
They told him to come in the summer, during July, 
when one could scarcely breathe. An old workman, 
relating the experience of his first day's toil, says he 
applied for work, and the superintendent, saying he 
looked strong and tough, set him on the pit work. For 
the first time in his life he fainted repeatedly, and when 
he left at night he could scarcely drag himself home. 
^They take great risks, too; and the injuries sus- 
tained are of a most frightful character. An explosion 
in the pouring of the molten metal, and half a dozen 



68 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

men are terribly mangled and one or two killed. Such 
incidents are not infrequent. The continuous dread 
of an accident, combined with the intense drive of the 
work, constitute a fearful strain.-* This is a fearful 
picture, painted in the darkest, most repulsive colors, 
but this is but one side of it. Nothing is said of the 
comfortable homes which steady employment at 
from four to ten dollars a day enabled the steady^ 
sober workman to maintain — the self-confidence that 
continuous employment begets. The environments of 
the mills were improved as rapidly as possible, streets 
were paved, schools were established, and public 
institutions of various kinds were initiated Several 
free educational institutions were founded by Mr. 
Carnegie in an attempt to help his workmen help 
themselves. The other side of this picture is full 
of light and hope, though there are many exceptions. 
Many of the men have happy families, and those 
of the better class are very well off. The company 
houses are very good, and have all modern conve- 
niences, and the men who are sober and care for their 
families, besides being prosperous live comfortably. 

The effect of the work on these men was brought 
out in a conversation with one of them which Mr. 
Garland had the morning after his visit to the mills. 
"The worst part of the whole business," said the 
workman, "is, it brutalizes a man. You can't help 



AS AN EMPLOYER OF LABOR 69 

it. You start to be a man, but you become more 
and more a machine, and pleasures are few and far 
between. It's like any severe labor; it drags you 
down mentally and morally just as it does physically. 
I wouldn't mind it so much but for the long hours. 
Twelve hours is too long." 

The rate of pay in the works varied with the class 
of labor. But, speaking generally, at Homestead 
the workmen received a daily wage of from $1.50 to 
$10.00. The old experienced men in these works are 
hardened specimens of humanity, with muscles and 
bodies as tough as the steel they handle. They are 
wonderfully deft and skilful, and are capable of turn- 
ing out an immense amount of work at a high rate of 
speed. 

>^r. Carnegie freely admits that English workmen 
would not work as these men do, and he calculates that 
each man does nearly twice as much as his English pro- 
totype. He considers the climate of America much 
more invigorating than that of Britain, and he puts 
forward other contributory causes of the difference. 

But there can be no doubt that the extra work is 
forced by the tremendous drive or pressure of the 
American system. The men are bent upon earning 
high wages, and the masters are determined to beat ^^ 
all competition. Progress, the accumulation of wealth, 
complete supremacy over all competitors, these are 






70 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

the paramount considerations, and everything less is 
disregarded./' 

/nvhat reply does Mr. Carnegie or any other employer 
make when easier conditions are suggested? He 
tells you that it is impossible unless all manufac- 
turers in the same line agree on practically the same 
conditions: competition is inexorable. If these meas- 
ures were not adopted, they would be left behind in 
the fightv' And Mr. Carnegie is certainly not the man 
to be "left"; rather is he the man to leave others. 
/ He is a typical American employer. Nowhere has the 
drive and strain been more intense, and the discipline 
more rigorous and unbending, than in the works of the 
Carnegie Company. /But if Mr. Carnegie drives his men 
hard, he pays them well. He claims that the wages 
paid in his works have been from ten to fifteen 
per cent, higher than in any other works of a similar 
nature in the United State^-. Inside his works he was 
in that respect superiof to the typical American 
employer, and outside he is far ahead of his commercial 
brethren. The average manufacturer in America, it 
is said, compares very unfavorably with his British 
rival in the interest he takes in the well-being of his 
work-people during their leisure time. Homestead, 
as we have seen, was a dismal place. Model working- 
class communities were conspicuous by their absence. 
Mr. Carnegie, we know, has done and is doing a great 



AS AN EMPLOYER OF LABOR 71 

deal in the way of providing libraries, music halls and 
clubs, and he has recently made a gift of $4,000,000 for 
the formation of a pension fund for his work-people. 
In another way Mr. Carnegie has shown his breadth of 
sympathy. On the principle of helping those who help 
themselves, the Carnegie firm allows every workman to 
deposit his savings in the business and pays him six 
per cent, interest on the money invested. On the other 
hand, the firm is willing to lend to any of its workmen 
desirous of building or purchasing a house the sum 
needed for the purpose, charging interest at the rate of 
six per cent, on the loan. 

Mx. Carnegie is also deserving of the highest praise 
for the strenuous efforts he has made to reduce the 
hours of labor in America by working the eight-hour 
instead of the twelve-hour shifts. His action in this 
matter convincingly proves his real desire to alleviate 
the exceptional strain to which American people are 
subject. He says: "I sympathize with the desire to 
have shorter hours of labor. We have too long hours 
of labor in America^ There is not a blast-furnace or 
manufactory that has to run night and day at which 
the workers do not work twelve hours a day, the 
twenty-four hours being divided into two shifts. But 
to reduce the hours of labor in works that have to run 
night and day can only be done by a general law com- 
pelling all such works to adopt eight-hour shifts. We 



72 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

tried this voluntarily ourselves at Pittsburgh for two 
years. We worked all the blast-furnace men on three 
shifts of eight hours each, hoping that other iron manu- 
facturers would be induced or compelled to follow our 
example. But only one firm in the whole country did 
so; and finally competition became so keen that we 
were forced to go back to the twelve-hour shifts. It 
was a question whether we were to run the works at a 
loss or not, and after losing at least $500,000 by the 
experiment, we had to ask our men to return to the two 
shifts a day. We offered to divide with the men 
the extra cost of thirty-three and one-third per cent, 
which the three shifts involved, so that we might con- 
tinue the eight-hour system, the firm paying seventeen 
per cent, and the men sixteen per cent. ; but rather 
than do this they decided to go back to the two shifts 
of twelve hours a day." 

These facts should be carefully considered by people 
who make the complaint against Mr. Carnegie that he 
ought to have been satisfied with a smaller f ortime and 
rendered easier the conditions of his work-people. 
This consummation is not very easily attained, because 
on a turnover so vast as that of the Carnegie Company 
the slightest -alteration may mean either a large profit 
or a huge loss. Mr. Carnegie holds his workmen in 
high appreciation, and he is exceedingly grateful to 
them for their part in building up his fortune. He 



AS AN EMPLOYER OF LABOR 73 

acknowledges the severity of their labor, and he 
always speaks of them in the highest terms of admira- 
tion and respect. There is almost a pathetic ring 
about the following words: "I remember after Vandy 
and I had gone round the world, and were walking the 
streets of Pittsburgh, we decided that the Americans 
were the saddest-looking race we had ever seen. Life 
is so terribly earnest here. Ambition urges us all on, 
from him who handles a spade to him who employs 
thousands . We know no rest . ' ' 

Mr. Carnegie stands by the fact that he has been 
instrumental in giving employment to a vast army of 
workmen. This is his favorite reply to all attacks 
upon him, and he thinks more of this achievement 
than he does of all his benefactions. "Those who 
insure steady employment to thousands at wages not 
lower than others pay need not be ashamed of their 
record; for steady employment is, after all, the one 
indispensable requisite for the welfare and progress of 
the people." 

In addressing his workmen at Pittsburgh in 1893 he 
said: **I made my first dollar in Pittsburgh, and ex- 
pect to make my last dollar here also. I do not know 
any form of philanthropy so beneficial as this : there is 
no charity in it. I have hoarded nothing, and shall not 
die rich apart from my interest in the business. Unless 
the Pittsburgh works are prosperous I shall have 



^ 



74 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

nothing. I have put all my eggs in one basket right 
,;here, and I have the satisfaction of knowing that the 
first charge on every dollar of my capital is the pay- 
ment of the highest earnings paid for labor in any part 
of the world for similar services. Upon that record I 
stand." 



Conflicts with Labor 



CHAPTER VI 

CONFLICTS WITH LABOR 

LABOR, capital and business ability are the three ? 
legs of a three-legged stool. Neither the first, 
the second nor the third has any preference, all being 
equally necessary. He who would sow discord among 
the three is the enemy of all." Thus spoke Andrew 
Carnegie to an interviewer in March, 1901. From 
time to time he has written freely on the labor ques- 
tion, especially in reference to strikes and trade unions. 
In 1886 he said: "My experience has been that trade 
unions upon the whole are beneficial both to labor 
and capital. They certainly educate the working- 
man, and give him a truer conception of the relations 
of capital and labor than he could otherwise form. I 
recognize in trade unions, or, better still, in organiza- 
tions of the men of each establishment, who select 
representatives to speak for them, a means not of 
further embittering the relations between employer 
and employed, but of improving them." 

Mr. Carnegie thinks that the individual labor organ- 
ization is the most useful to the workman — ^that is, 
each works or groups of works to have their own union 
which shall be thoroughly cognizant with conditions 

77 



78 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

in its own mill. He does not extend the same approval 
to the ordinary types of labor organization, nor does he 
agree with all the principles on which they are founded. 
When asked whether or not there was in the States 
an organization known as the "Knights of Labor," 
which is a similar body to the English trade unions, he 
replied: "Say rather we had. It was one of those 
ephemeral organizations that go up like a rocket and 
come down like a stick. It was founded upon false 
principles, viz., that they could combine common or 
unskilled labor with skilled." He holds that the 
man who is doubly as efficient as another should 
receive twice as much remimeration, and he continues : 
"If we are not to recognize that one man has brains or 
ability beyond another, why should a man of superior 
parts try to do his best?" 

Mr. Carnegie would not tolerate any organization 
among his work-people that propagated such mis- 
chievous principles, and his firm stand on this question 
was, perhaps, the chief contributing factor to his first 
dispute with his men. This occurred at his Braddock 
steel works. It appears that Mr. Carnegie came to 
certain terms with his employees which, when embodied 
in an agreement, the men's leaders refused to sign, 
incited thereto by the union agitators, at whom the 
agreement was expressly aimed. The principal feature 
of the agreement was a substitution of the sliding- 



CONFLICTS WITH LABOR 79 

scale plan of wage-earning for the usual unchanging 
method. The sliding scale made the workman prac- 
tically a partner with the company : he either profited 
or lost with the company. Another feature of the new 
contract was the abolishment of the eight-hour day — 
that is, three shifts instead of two to each twenty-four 
hours. The eight-hour plan was found to be tmprofit- 
able and a sliding scale at a twelve-hour schedule 
was proposed as a substitute. The men were also 
required to sign a cast-iron agreement promising to 
abide by the contract for a certain number of years. 

These documents were put before the men at the end 
of the year 1887. During that year it was estimated 
that Mr. Carnegie had made a profit of $15,000,000. 
The men refused to agree to the terms set before 
them, and the works were immediately shut down. 
No work meant no food, no fuel, no clothes, for 
everything and everybody in Braddock depended 
on the mills. All efforts toward compromise on the 
part of the men were instantly rejected, but no effort 
was made to replace the locked-out men with outsiders. 
The men held out from December to April. After 
unsuccessfully attempting to obtain a settlement on 
their own lines, the workmen decided to give way, and 
their leaders waited on Mr. Carnegie with the necessary 
authority to come to terms, but with the intention of 
making a nominal surrender only, and not binding 



8o ANDREW CARNEGIE 

themselves personally to the agreement. Mr. Carnegie 
took the deputation to dinner, joked with them, and 
then produced the new contracts for their acceptance. 
The leaders asked if they might be allowed to sign as 
representatives of the union. "Certainly,'* said Mr. 
Carnegie, *'you can sign as you please." They signed 
without hesitation, congratulating themselves on their 
smartness. **Now," said Mr. Carnegie, ''as I have 
obliged you by letting you sign as you please, would 
you oblige me by signing in your individual capacity 
as well?'* "Begorrah," said the agitator, "begorrah, 
the game's up." And it was. They attached their 
signatures a second time, and the strike was ended. 

That is Mr. Carnegie's version of the affair, which, 
of course, has another aspect when described by the 
workmen. It was said that the men resumed work on 
a pledge, given by Mr. Carnegie's manager, that the 
men thrown out of work by the two-shift instead of the 
three-shift system would be foimd employment in the 
other mills of the company, and that a general amnesty 
would be granted to all who had taken part in the 
strike. This pledge, some of the men say, was broken. 
But there is no evidence that any such pledge was 
actually given. As a matter of fact, the sliding scale 
instituted at Braddock has proved uniformly satisfac- 
tory to both the workmen and the company, and the 
plan has been extended to other places. 



CONFLICTS WITH LABOR 8i 

The second and last dispute that the Carnegie firm 
had with its employees was at the Homestead works, 
over which Mr. Frick, the manager, had supreme con- 
trol. Owing to the atrocious methods by which the 
conflict was conducted on both sides, this strike at 
Homestead caused a sensation throughout the civilized 
world. As usual there is much contradiction of facts 
by the parties concerned, and great confusion as to the 
circumstances of the dispute. The following events are 
gathered from accounts which were current at the 
time. 

On July I, 1889, the firm made a three-year con- 
tract with a number of skilled workmen, through 
the medium of . the Amalgamated Iron and Steel 
Workers' Association, to pay them at the rate of 
twenty-five dollars per ton for a certain product of 
Bessemer steel. At the beginning of Jime, 1892, Mr. 
Frick announced that the rate in future would be 
twenty-two dollars per ton, which he eventually raised 
to twenty-three dollars, but the men held firm for 
twenty-four dollars. Mr. Frick further notified them 
that henceforth the contracts would terminate in mid- 
winter instead of midsummer. The men objected to 
this because it placed them at a disadvantage. 

Negotiations were broken off on June 24th and 
the mills were shut down on the 30th. Then began 
a series of heart-rending episodes. Mr. Frick, with 



82 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

an "intelligent anticipation of events,'* had taken 
precautionary measures while the negotiations were in 
progress. He resolved to keep the works going by 
non-unionist workmen, and to protect these he had 
engaged three hundred Pinkerton detectives, and had 
also surrounded the works with fences and trenches 
until they resembled a military fort. It was reported 
at the time that along the top of the fence, which was 
twelve feet high, a barbed wire was laid, which was 
nicknamed the ''live wire fence" because it was 
charged with a degree of electricity sufficiently strong 
to kill any one who touched it. But this was abso- 
lutely disproved later. On the other hand, it was 
stated that the men deliberately attempted to murder 
all the non-union workmen by poisoning their food 
as it was being prepared in the kitchens. 

Immediately the negotiations in progress between 
the two parties were ended, the men stationed guards at 
all the entrances to the mills. The river, the streets 
and the roads entering the town were also closely 
patrolled, and a rigid surveillance was exercised over 
all visitors. During the disturbance great damage 
was done to the mills of the company and to public 
property in the town. Frick now thought it was 
high time to use his police force and attempt the 
importation of foreign labor. It was arranged that the 
detectives should proceed to Homestead by the river, 



CONFLICTS WITH LABOR 83 

and arrive there about midnight, when it was hoped 
they would be able to enter the works unobserved. 

At two o'clock on the morning of July 6, three hundred 
detectives, accompanied by the deputy-sheriff of the 
district, embarked on a steamer and two barges and 
left Pittsburgh for Homestead. On their arrival they 
found the river banks lined with thousands of men, 
women, and even children. Many of the men were 
armed with revolvers and clubs, while the Pinkerton 
detectives had their Winchester rifles. A short war of 
words was followed by an attempt of the boating party 
to land. This was resisted by the frenzied workmen, 
shots were exchanged, and fighting soon became 
general. Another determined sortie was made by a 
body of fifty Pinkertons under cover of the rifle fire 
from their companions, but they met with such a hot 
reception that they were compelled to retreat. 

The strikers now erected a fort on which they 
mounted a small piece of artillery and opened fire with 
it upon the barges. They also endeavored to set fire 
to the barges by pouring petroletmi in the river, but 
an unfavorable wind rendered their efforts unsuc- 
cessful. The steamer, with the deputy-sheriff and 
the wounded men on board, got adrift from the two 
barges, and, running the gantlet of a heavy fire, 
returned to Pittsburgh. At 5 P. m. on the following day 
the Pinkertons surrendered on condition that if they 



84 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

gave up their arms they would be guaranteed a safe 
conduct. Notwithstanding this guarantee, they were 
brutally assaulted as they passed through the town, 
and many were seriously injured. The casualties of 
the whole conflict amounted to six workmen killed 
and eighteen woimded, nine Pinkertons killed and 
twenty-one woimded, and a hundred Pinkertons 
severely mutilated after their surrender. 

On learning of the fight, the Governor of the State 
sent down a force of 8,000 militia, who occupied the 
works. Rioting, however, continued for a time. On 
July 23 Mr. Prick was assaulted by a Russian who was 
admitted to his office on a pretense of business. The 
loss to the company through the works remaining idle 
was $50,000 daily, apart from the expense of $20,000 
daily for the maintenance of the militia. 

A commission was appointed by Congress to institute 
a thorough inquiry into the whole event, and their 
report roundly censured every one concerned, but 
especially Mr. Prick, at whose door it practically laid 
the entire responsibility for the conflict. It said: 
*' Mr. Prick seems to have been too stem, brusque, and 
somewhat autocratic, of which some of the men justly 
complain. We are persuaded that, if he had chosen, 
an agreement would have been reached between him 
and the workmen, and all the trouble which followed 
would have been avoided." 



CONFLICTS WITH LABOR 85 

Professor Bemis, a high authority on industrial prob- 
lems, and a man universally respected, published an 
article on the strike which was distinguished by a 
judicial spirit of impartiality and moderation. He 
severely condemned the attitude and policy of Mr. 
Frick, and stated that O'Donnell, the men's repre- 
sentative, made every effort to promote an amicable 
settlement, and when the negotiations were broken off 
by Mr. Frick he pleaded for a reopening of the discus- 
sion, stating clearly that he believed terms would 
eventually be agreed upon. But Mr. Frick was obdu- 
rate : he had set himself to smash trade unionism. 

Attempts were made by the men's leaders to com- 
municate with Mr. Carnegie. Professor Bemis states 
that O'Donnell applied to Frick for Mr. Carnegie's 
address in Scotland, which was known only to his 
business associates. Mr. Frick refused to give the 
address, whereupon it was obtained from the American 
Consul in London. The men's terms of settlement 
were then cabled to Mr. Carnegie, who approved of 
them and urged an immediate consultation with Frick. 
Mr. Frick, however, refused to consider the matter at 
all, and declared that if Carnegie came in person, in 
company with President Harrison and the entire 
Cabinet, he would not settle the strike. Mr. Carnegie, 
in his reply, guarded himself by saying that he had no 
power to instruct anybody connected with the Carnegie 



86 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

Steel Company. **The officers," he wrote, "are 
elected for a year, and no one can interfere with them. 
As for instructing them or compelling them under law 
to do one thing or another, that is simply an absurd 
suggestion. I could not if I would, and I would not if 
I could." This restricted authority is involved in his 
system of management by partners. 

A very different complexion is, however, put upon 
the outbreak at Homestead by the following summary 
of events, which is vouched for on the best authority, 
and which contradicts the personal attacks upon Mr. 
Carnegie. The issue between the firm and 267 union 
men, out of 3,000 men employed, was that these 
malcontents demanded an advance equal to sixty 
per cent, on the scale, when they were already 
earning from $10 to $13 per day of eight hours. 
The firm offered to meet them half way. New 
machinery, erected at a cost of $4,000,000, had 
increased the output sixty per cent., and this the firm 
offered to divide with its union men. When Mr. 
Carnegie looked into the matter he pronotmced it 
the most generous offer that had ever been made to 
employees, as the labor was not harder with the new 
machinery than with the old. 

The firm started the works when the few tmion men 
struck, at the wish of the 2,700 others, who offered to 
work the mills without the union men. It was these 



CONFLICTS WITH LABOR 87 

latter who, armed with guns and pistols, shot down the 
police, and so provoked reprisals. 

It was the general opinion that if the "little boss," 
as Mr. Carnegie was called by his men, had been present, 
the whole matter would have been peacefully settled; 
but as he was not there it is absurd to charge him with 
neglect. He did not even hear of it until the works 
had started. Mr.- Frick, as president, with a board of 
directors, had been in full control, and the works 
were running under the protection of the troops of 
Pennsylvania ; the State had the matter in charge. 

The chairman of the union publicly stated that in 
the eyes of the men the trouble never would have hap- 
pened if Mr. Carnegie had been at home. After it had 
arisen a committee of workmen wired to Mr. Carnegie : 
*' Kind master, tell us what you want us to do and we 
will do it"; but the riot had occurred before this 
telegram had reached him, and had rendered him 
powerless in the matter. 

In the course of his brilliant business career Mr. 
Carnegie has not had any acute differences with his 
work-people. 

On his return to Pittsburgh in January, 1893, he 
addressed his employees at Homestead, in the course 
of his speech saying: *' I have not come to Pittsburgh 
to rake up, but to bury the past. It should be ban- 
ished as a horrid dream, but the lessons it teaches 



88 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

should be laid to heart for future application. For 
twenty-six years our concerns have met with only one 
labor stoppage. I trust and believe that this record 
will be equaled in the next twenty-five years. When 
employer and employed become antagonistic their 
antagonism can only be described as a contest between 
twin brothers. No genuine victory is possible for 
either side, only the defeat of both." On all occasions 
he has emphatically denounced labor disputes, but 
he does not confine his sympathies entirely to the 
employers. The following paragraph shows that he is 
capable of looking at matters sympathetically from 
the men's standpoint. "When public sentiment has 
rightly and immistakably condemned violence, even in 
the form of which there is the most excuse, I would 
have the public give due consideration to the terrible 
temptation to which the workingman on strike is some- 
times subjected. To expect that one dependent upon 
his daily wage for the necessities of life will stand by 
peaceably and see a new man employed in his stead is 
to expect much. This poor man may have a wife and 
children dependent upon his labor. Whether medi- 
cine for a sick child, or even nourishing food for a 
delicate wife is procurable, depends upon his steady 
employment. In all but a few departments of labor 
it is unnecessary and, I think, improper to subject men 
to such an ordeal." He thinks that neither the best 



CONFLICTS WITH LABOR 89 

men as men nor the best men as workers are thus to 
be obtained. 

Mr. Carnegie has also detailed a number of sugges- 
tions for the peaceful settlement of all differences 
between capital and labor. His main solution of this 
exceedingly difficult problem is arbitration, work to be 
continued tmder old conditions until the arbitrators 
come to a decision. But he does not state whether 
arbitration should be compulsory, and thereby he 
shrinks from grappling with the real difficulty of the 
situation. 



His Political Faith 



CHAPTER VII 

HIS POLITICAL FAITH 

PERHAPS Mr. CamegiC'S most striking charac- 
teristic is his absolute independence, and in 
nothing is this more evident than in his political faith. 
He brings to any subject a vast experience of the world, 
a shrewd intellect and a forceful will, and irrespective 
of all other views strikes out his line of thought. 
Authorities are nothing to him: he totally disregards 
them; and with a bold originality, that in some 
instances is almost staggering, he judges a question 
entirely on its merits as it appeals to his own mind. 
He pierces the very heart of things, strips a question of 
all superfluities, and concentrates all his energy on 
absolute essentials, impatiently brushing to one side all 
the flummery and fancy work that weave themselves 
aro\md political issues. Opportunism is abhorrent to 
him, and he heartily detests the art of "sitting on the 
fence." The views of such a man are well worthy of 
critical consideration. 

The salient feature of Mr. Carnegie's politics is his 
passionate devotion to republican government such as 
is embodied in the Constitution of the United States. 

93 



94 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

In his book, "Triumphant Democracy,'* and in many 
magazine articles and interviews, he lauds the glories of 
American democracy. It is his fetish, and he is an 
ardent worshiper at its shrine. His views, therefore, 
on this subject, an English writer says, ''are scarcely 
likely to be well balanced, and, indeed, they resemble 
more the rhapsodies of an enthusiast than the judg- 
ment of a cool, experienced man of the world." The 
same writer quotes this instance " as an outburst of one- 
sided sentiment" : — "Ah, favored land ! the best of the 
old world seek your shores to swell to still greater pro- 
portions your assured greatness. That all come only 
for the material benefits you confer I do not believe. 
Crowning these material considerations, I insist that 
the more intelligent of these people feel the spirit of 
true manhood stirring within them, and glory in the 
thought that they are to become part of a powerful 
people, of a government founded upon the bom equality 
of man, free from military despotism and class distinc- 
tions; 117,000 came last month, and the cry is still 
they come ! Oh, ye self -constituted rulers of men in 
Europe, know you not that the knell of dynasties and 
of rank is sounding ? Are you so deaf that you do not 
hear the thunders, so blind that you do not see the 
lightnings which now and then give warning of the 
storm that is to precede the reign of the people?" 
But though in some directions Mr. Carnegie allows 



HIS POLITICAL FAITH 95 

himself to go to extremes, in the main his republican- 
ism represents a robust and healthy confidence in an 
untrammeled democracy. He is a fierce opponent of 
rank and class distinctions, and he holds in supreme 
contempt the privileged classes who live a life of selfish 
luxury, contributing nothing by forced industry or 
volimtary service to the welfare of society. But lie 
is far from being a socialist, whom he describes as 
a balloon farmer "wanting to jump to the moon in 
one bound." His ideal is a government of the people, 
by the people, for the people. 

The House of Lords is to him a monstrosity that 
ought not to be tolerated for one moment. He holds 
that its members are drawn from the most incompetent 
sections of the nation, and that as a whole they are 
totally unfit to perform legislative functions. He 
considers that titles have a blighting influence on any 
one's individuality, and he illustrates his meaning by 
contrasting the probable places in history of Mr. 
Gladstone, Lord Beaconsfield and Lord Salisbury. '*I 
have always regarded him (Lord Salisbury) as a strik- 
ing instance of the advantage of not being born to 
hereditary wealth and position. Like the great 
foimder of the Cecils, Lord Salisbury himself was bom 
a commoner ; a younger son with a younger son's por- 
tion, and with the promptings of decided ability in him, 
he did ever3rthing in his power to prevent being nar- 



96 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

rowed and restricted by the smothering robes of rank 
and wealth. His country's law forces him to sink 
his individuality in a peerage, but for which England 
might have told of a first and second Cecil, as it 
tells of a first and second Pitt — men too great to be 
obliterated as men by any title. It is a sad descent 
in historical rank from 'Cecil' to the Marquis of any- 
thing. 

**The highest title that a man can write upon the 
page of history is his own name. Mr. Gladstone's will 
be there; Gladstone he is; Gladstone he will remain, 
even if he tried to make future generations lose his 
commanding personality in the 'Dukedom of Clydes- 
dale,' or any other title whatever. But who among his 
contemporaries in public life is to stand this supreme 
test of masterdom? 'Disraeli' promised well for a 
time, but he fades rapidly into ' Beaconsfield ' — a 
shadow of a name. The title proves greater than the 
man." 

Mr. Carnegie is an out-and-out radical, and strongly 
in favor of drastic social reform. But his enthusiasm 
for Disestablishment, One Man One Vote, Peasant 
Ownership of Land, etc., is submerged in his passionate 
antagonism to the principle of monarchical govern- 
ment. "Were I in public life in Great Britain," he 
writes, "I should be ashamed to waste my energies 
against the House of Lords, Church and State, primo- 



HIS POLITICAL FAITH 97 

geniture and entail, and all the other branches of the 
monstrous system; I should strike boldly at the royal 
family, the root of the upas tree from which springs all 
these wrongs.** 

At one time it was nmiored that he intended 
to enter the British Pariiament. That was when 
Messrs. Bright, Chamberiain, Dilke and Labouchere 
were fighting hard in the vanguard of extreme 
radicalism. They had Mr. Carnegie's fullest sympathy 
and support, and he entertained high hopes that the 
dawn of republicanism for England was at hand. He 
was on terms of friendship with all the lights of liberal- 
ism in its palmiest days. For Mr. John Morley, and 
above all for Mr. Gladstone, he had the profoundest 
respect and admiration, and he regarded Mr. Chamber- 
lain as the coming leader of Democracy and future 
Prime Minister of England. 

He gave expression to this opinion in plain terms in 
1885, when he presented copies of Scribner's Statistical 
Atlas of the United States, showing by graphic methods 
its political, social, and industrial development. 

There is a significance about this incident which it 
is interesting to recall at the present jimcture in 
English politics, but this does not mean that these 
views are still held by Mr. Carnegie, who does not 
now regard the monarchy as a rival to popular self- 
government. 



98 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

On a blank page of one atlas he wrote : 

''Presented to 
THE FREE LIBRARY OF BIRMINGHAM 

BY 

ANDREW CARNEGIE 

Newport, June g, 1885. 

"Let the men of Birmingham note what 
their kin beyond the sea are doing under 
Republican institutions founded upon the 
equality of the Citizen — a land where 
throne and aristocracy are alike unknown. 

A. C." 

The other atlas he inscribed as follows : 

"To 
JOSEPH CHAMBERLAIN 

The leader of the masses and future Premier 
of Britain, I send this record of the reign 
of the people under institutions based upon 
the only true doctrine, the political equality 
of the Citizen. 

Andrew Carnegie. 
"New York, November 18, 1885.'' 

Foiir years afterwards Mr. Chamberlain presented 
this interesting document as a companion copy to 
the Birmingham Free Library. A printed slip an- 
nouncing the gift was placed inside the atlas for the 
guidance and instruction of readers. 



HIS POLITICAL FAITH 99 

Of English M. P.'s as a whole Mr. Carnegie has no 
flattering opinion. He thinks they are sadly lacking in 
steadfastness, thoroughness and courage. "So many 
public men in England 'stoop to conquer,' forgetting 
that whatever else they may conquer thereafter they 
can never conquer that * stoop ' which drags down their 
life." And in another place he scoffs at their timidity. 
"English politicians are mostly nibblers, small morsels 
at a time, though Gladstone can take a good bite when 
put to it." 

Mr. Carnegie applies one principle for the United 
States and an altogether different one for Great Britain, 
because the one had to create manufactures and the 
other had them. Take the tariff question. For 
America he is an out-and-out Protectionist ; for England 
he is an out-and-out Free Trader. His arguments 
in favor of Free Trade for England can be readily 
agreed with, but the reasons he originally gave for his 
support of a protective tariff for America have long 
ago disappeared. He maintained that heavy import 
duties were necessary in order to enable the American 
manufacturer to hold the home market against the 
foreigner, and he considered his own industries of 
iron and steel especially needed this assistance. But 
to this view he added the important qualification that 
he was not in favor of protection beyond the point 
necessary to allow America to retain her home market 



100 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

in a fair contest with the foreigner. For the last five 
years at least the conditions have been exactly the 
reverse of those put forward by Mr. Carnegie as justify- 
ing the McKinley Tariff. Mr. Carnegie, however, 
though he has not made any appeal for the abolition 
of the protective duty, has twice advised reductions 
which were made, and he is in favor of further reduc- 
tions now. He has been consistent always in this 
matter, and offended his party, advocating protection 
only as a path to free trade. 

The keynote of one of his most vigorous articles, 
''What Would I Do with the Tariff if I were Czar?" 
is the taxing of luxuries, the imported articles the rich 
consider indispensable and can afford to pay for; on 
the necessaries of life he would reduce the tariff corre- 
spondingly. 

Protection or no protection, Andrew Carnegie's 
genius was bound to lift him to a high position. Much 
more absurd and much more venomous is the insinua- 
tion, at one time freely made in the States, that his 
influential support of the Republican party was bought 
at the price of its adhesion to the McKinley Tariff 
Bill. That he should be attacked in this way is, per- 
haps, the natural consequence of his prominence in the 
political arena. Protection, however, was by no means 
the subject to which he gave most attention. He 
attached far more importance to the Silver Question, 



HIS POLITICAL FAITH loi 

on which he was one of Mr. Bryan's most formidable 
antagonists. 

Reverting to his interest in British politics, it is 
interesting to note that, despite his admiration for 
Mr. Gladstone and his devotion to Mr. Morley, he 
could not accept unqualified their Irish policy. He was 
in favor of simply giving Ireland the fullest measure of 
local self-government, and making her status in the 
Empire the same as that of a Federal State in the 
American Union. 

A dominating factor in Mr. Camegie*s politics is his 
love of peace. His hatred and abhorrence of war 
amounted almost to a passion. In 1881 he said that to 
him the real glory of America lay in the fact that she 
had no army worth the name, and that her navy could 
boast of scarcely a single efficient warship. **What 
has America to do," he writes, "following in the wake 
of brutal, pugilistic nations still under the influence of 
feudal institutions, who exhaust their revenues training 
men how best to butcher their fellows, and in build- 
ing ships for purposes of destruction." He has de- 
nounced in emphatic terms both the Philippine and 
South African conflicts as unjust and foolish in the 
extreme, and he bitterly laments what he considers to 
be this hateful* relapse of the English-speaking race 
from its great ideals of peace and freedom. Lifelong 
Republican though he has been, his feelings on the 



I02 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

war policy were so strong that he severed his allegiance 
to the Government and ranged himself alongside the 
Bryanites, to whom he was opposed on every other 
public question. No one who does not know the excep- 
tional strength of party ties and party loyalty that 
exist in the United States can understand how keenly 
such a staunch party man as Andrew Carnegie must 
have felt this separation from old friends and associa- 
tions. But holding the views that he did he felt boimd 
to give expression to them. He believed that America 
was entering upon a policy of imperial expansion and 
colonial dominion that would lead to a policy of mili- 
tarism and aggression. Vigorously and vehemently 
he attacked the Government, and bitterly denounced 
what he considered its fatal departure from the tradi- 
tional policy of the nation. He advises both America 
and Britain to leave the blacks to look after themselves, 
a sentiment admirably suited for theoretical discussion, 
but when applied for practical purposes it resolves itself 
into an utter and impossible neglect of duty. 

In his political controversies Mr. Carnegie often 
indulges in prophecies, and one thing he predicted 
twenty years ago was the decay of Parliament and 
pulpit and the rise of the newspaper and the review. 
*' The brain of a cotmtry,*' he says, "will be foimd where 
the real work is to be done. The House of Lords regis- 
ters the decrees of the House of Commons. The House 



HIS POLITICAL FAITH 103 

of Commons is soon to register the decree of the monthly 
magazines. In the next generation the debates of 
Parliament will affect the political currents of the age as 
little as the fulminations of the pulpit affect religious 
thought at present. The press is the imiversal parlia- 
ment. The leaders in that forum make your statesmen 
dance as they pipe. If any man wants bona fide sub- 
stantial power and influence in this world, he must 
handle the pen — ^that's flat. Truly it is a nobler 
weapon than the sword and the tongue, both of which 
have nearly had their day." 

At one time Mr. Carnegie entertained the idea of 
covering England with a network of Radical news- 
papers, through which he could impress the masses 
with his political views. He acquired no less than 
eighteen organs of the press, but he does not seem to 
have entered on the work with his usual thoroughness 
and determination ; and although he managed to make 
a commercial success of the scheme, its political results 
did not realize expectations. 

In regard to religious matters Mr. Carnegie takes up 
an independent position. He is emphatically not an 
agnostic. He believes in Christianity and in the 
goodness of God, but his great human spirit is not to be 
bound by the formulas of sects and creeds. He tells 
a very amusing anecdote of an incident that happened 
when he was traveling in China. He essayed his 



r^ 



I04 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

powers as a missionary on one of the subjects of the 
Celestial Empire, and the result was not very encourag- 
ing for him. He relates the story as follows: ''One 
day I asked our guide, Ah Cum, a gentleman and a 
scholar, why he did not embrace Christianity. His 
eyes twinkled as he replied, 'Where goee, eh? Goee 
Bishopee ? ' (pointing to the Cathedral). * He say allee 
rightee. Goee there ?' (pointing to the English church). 
* Bishopee say damee. Goee Hopper?' (the American 
Presbyterian missionary). 'He sayee Bishop churchee 
no goodee, hellee firee. What I doee, eh?' 'Stay 
where you are, you rogue,'" replied Mr. Carnegie, and 
he adds, "Confound that fellow, I did not expect to be 
picked up in that manner." Mr. Carnegie thinks it is 
useless to preach to the heathen one God and half a 
dozen creeds. He considers that to-day the pulpit 
exercises very little influence on the life of the world. 
He thinks that its sentiments are practically ignored 
by men of action and work. "Who cares," he says, 
"what the Rev. Mr. Froth preaches when he ventures 
beyond the homilies." He describes the parson to 
suit him to be one who says little and does much. He 
has, however, very great faith in the refining and 
elevating influence of music, which he speaks of as 
heaven's chief mediimi. 

We have seen that Mr. Carnegie is an optimist of the 
optimists. The progress of the world and the advance 



HIS POLITICAL FAITH 105 

of the English-speaking race are to him as inevitable 
as that night should follow day, and his faith shines 
steady and clear through all discouragement. " God's 
in His heaven, all's right with the world," aptly de- 
scribes his view of the many mysteries of human life. 
The following quotation gives one an insight into the 
standpoint from which he looks out on things: "It 
is a criminal waste of time and thought to dwell much 
upon what is to come in the far unknown future. I 
am an evolutionist. My teacher is Herbert Spencer. 
It is impossible to set bounds to what the human race 
can do, or what it may become, physically, mentally, 
or socially. . . . We are all traveling in the 
same direction, and finally, I believe, to heaven.** 

And now we come to the political project which is 
dearer to Mr. Carnegie than anything else, and to 
accomplish which he would gladly sacrifice his fortune. 
Mr. Gladstone once described Mr. Carnegie as so inter- 
woven in his interests between America and England 
that he formed a living link between them. The one 
supreme desire of Mr. Carnegie is to weave together the 
interests of the two nations and form them into one 
vast confederacy. He is an enthusiastic advocate of 
the Federation of English-speaking peoples, and he 
is very sanguine about the possibilities of its achieve- 
ment, believing that the idea would be heartily wel- 
comed by the vast majority of the people of the United 



io6 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

States, and that it would command the enthusiastic 
support of the colonies. The mother country alone, 
he thinks, is lukewarm in the matter. It is only in 
political ideas, he points out, that there is any dissimi- 
larity. In language, literature, religion and law we are 
a united race. Britain, he maintains, has everything 
to gain by amalgamation of interests. Her produce 
would enter the world's finest market — ^the United 
States — free of duty, and the accession of strength 
she would acquire by reunion wotdd relieve her from 
all fear of European combinations. If England 
holds back on this vital question, he predicts her 
downfall from her present proud position as head of the 
Anglo-Saxon race. **The only cotirse for Britain seems 
to me to be reunion with her giant child, or sure decline 
to a secondary place, and then comparative insignifi- 
cance in the future annals of the English-speaking 
race." 

He looks upon this reunion as the one great hope 
for the peace and progress of the world. He claims 
that the welfare of humanity imperatively calls for the 
consolidation of Anglo-American power. Such a fed- 
eration would be invincible both in the arts of peace 
and of war, for it would combine the control of the 
premier financial and manufacturing resources, with 
the possession of the finest human material on earth. 
Its supremacy would be incontestable and would com- 



HIS POLITICAL FAITH 107 

mand universal respect. By reason of its power it 
could set itself up as the arbiter of the world's disputes. 
The enormous waste of expenditure in maintaining 
bloated armaments would be stopped, and never again 
would legalized slaughter of man dishonor the human 
race. 

But is this noble aspiration of Mr. Carnegie's any- 
thing more than a castle in the air, and is any progress 
being made toward its realization? What has he to 
put forward against the thousand and one practical 
objections with which his ideal could easily be riddled ? 
First and foremost he sets forth the exigencies of com- 
merce and the blood affinity of the two peoples — the 
mightiest forces for reimion that could possibly be 
imagined. In addition to this, Mr. Carnegie regards 
the abridgment of distance as a favorable factor of 
much importance. The telegraph and the steamboat 
have greatly facilitated the means of intercommunica- 
tion and intervisitation, and travel nowadays is 
attended with every comfort and luxury. Never was 
there a time when so many Englishmen and Americans 
intervisited so often between the two countries. And 
Mr. Carnegie claims that the stanchest supporters 
of reunion, and those who are most convinced of its 
practicability, are to be found among those who have 
most frequently crossed the "pond" and come into 
contact with both peoples. The more extensive their 



io8 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

knowledge and their travel, the more confirmed are 
they in their faith. In social life the greatest cor- 
diality exists between the constituents of the two 
nations, while the masses of both seize every oppor- 
tunity to express publicly their enthusiasm for the 
project. 'Xet men say what they will, therefore," 
Mr. Carnegie concludes, "I say that as surely as the 
sun in the heavens once shone upon Britain and 
America united, so surely it is one morning to rise, 
shine upon and greet again "The Re-United States," 
"The British- American Union/' 



International Competition 



CHAPTER VIII 

INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION 

THE race for commercial supremacy between the 
old and the new world is now the all-engrossing 
question of the hour. The last generation has wit- 
nessed a remarkable change in the rapid advance which 
the traders of the West have made upon the markets of 
the world. The development of the United States 
as a trade competitor with European countries is the 
most conspicuous landmark in the commercial history 
of the nineteenth century. Supported by unlimited 
natural resources, it has made enormous strides as a 
manufacturing country. Its citizens, buoyant with 
youthful energy and ambition, have utilized to the full 
every advantage within their power. Armed with 
the latest weapons they have successfully attacked 
foreign markets, and to-day American manufacturers 
hold a strong position in almost every commercial 
comer in the world. This wonderful progress has 
been due to several causes, prominent among which 
are its enormous mineral wealth, cheap locomotion, 
protectionist duties, a dogged enterprise, and an 
inherent commercial skill. 

Ill 



112 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

No American has made such an impress upon the 
trade of the worid as Andrew Carnegie. The greatest 
iron and steel producer, he has led the American attack 
on all the markets in its most important sphere, namely, 
the region of i:on and steel manufacture. The pros- 
perity of a manufacturing coimtry is to be measured 
in the main by the prosperity of its iron and steel 
industries, and it is in this realm of industry that 
Andrew Carnegie has earned his title of King. His 
ability to deliver promptly owing to his skilfully 
equipped works, and the low price he could accept 
as a result of having at his elbow cheap material and 
quick facilities for production, gave him an immense 
advantage over his competitors. He conducted his 
business on a large scale, fully confident of securing a 
fair share of the world's patronage. His strong faith 
told him to cast his net, and he obeyed. The harvest 
he has brought safely to land is now the admira- 
tion of the whole world. Having won a great industrial 
victory, Mr. Carnegie should be in an authoritative 
position to speak upon the present state of trade and 
the commercial prospects of the old and new worlds. 
His innate sense of justice, his well balanced intellect 
and his wide experience entitle his views to careful 
consideration. 

Although a Scotchman by birth, hard-headed, thrifty 
and industrious, Mr. Carnegie is by training a typical 



INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION 113 

American. He has won his fortune in the land of 
big things, and it is only natural he should have a 
very high opinion of America's industrial resources 
and commercial future. He considers the United 
States in many respects far ahead of Great Britain, and 
holds that really the mother country will have to bestir 
itself if it is even to occupy a second place on the list. 
**The Briton has now," he says, *'to meet in industrial 
rivalry men of his own blood ; what is more, men of his 
own blood developed under more favorable circimi- 
stances." But although he considers the American 
workman "the ablest, quickest and most versatile 
worker the world has ever seen," he at the same time 
believes the old country will yet make a gallant struggle, 
especially if she will change her methods and show 
more enterprise. America has the great advantage 
that "whereas her resources have only been scratched, 
as it were, the raw materials of the old coimtry are 
rapidly being worked out." 

Probably very few Britons will agree with his gloomy 
view of the future, when he pictures their islands as 
the ancestral home and the garden and pleasure-groimd 
of the race. This elysium is to come into existence 
when "British manufactures have gone one by one," 
and when, as a nation, "we shall not be able to support 
a population of more than fifteen millions." 

He contributed a practical and stable article to the 



114 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

pages of the Nineteenth Century and After review for 
June, 1 90 1, and one which, although somewhat un- 
palatable to the imperialistic taste, contained much 
food for thought. The article was couched in a more 
optimistic strain, and made a bold attack on ''British 
Pessimism," which he was surprised to find had 
obtained such a strong hold on English industrial life. 
Although he has visited his native land for thirty years 
or more, he could not recollect having met with such a 
state of despondency amongst the leaders of British 
industries. But continuing, he immediately strikes a 
cheerful note, and says that "though your monopoly 
has gone your supremacy has not ; that so far there is 
no actual retrogression or inherent decay." 

Mr, Carnegie is of the opinion that England's legis- 
lators would spend their time more profitably if they 
paid more attention to commercial affairs and less to 
political wrangling. He argues that "a profitable 
home market is the strongest weapon that can be used 
to conquer markets abroad." The qualities of the 
race, he says, "lie dormant, and are still there; the 
dogged endurance, the ambition to excel, the will to 
do or die, are all there, but it has not been found 
necessary to drill them into disciplined action." 

Not until British manufacturers are face to face with 
ruin, and are compelled for lack of work to close their 
mills, does Mr. Carnegie think they will rouse them- 



INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION 115 

selves from their lethargy bom of custom and 
monopoly. When this hour arrives he little doubts 
that they will rise to the occasion and manifest to the 
worid their true qualities ; but by that time he is very 
much afraid the financial burdens of the coimtry will 
be so heavy that they will be imable to make up their 
lost ground. He regards with misgiving "the aggres- 
sive temper which has alienated other governments 
and peoples, and mistaken territorial acquisition for 
genuine empire building." This dangerous growth, 
he maintains, will not only largely increase the nation's 
financial burdens, but will deprive it of its productive 
capacity and decrease its volume of trade. If ever a 
nation had a clear and unmistakable warning that the 
time had arrived when it should henceforth measure 
its responsibilities and ambitions throughout the world 
with its resources, and cut its garment according to 
its cloth, Mr. Carnegie thinks, it is /'the dear old mother- 
land of the race, with its trade stationary and an army 
of thirty thousand men or more to be provided for in 
South Africa even after peace comes ; its expenditures 
and taxation increasing, and its promises to pay already 
at such a discoimt as to attract capital from acrgss the 
Atlantic." 

He has often pointed out that in the United States 
and Germany the controlling factor of diplomacy is 
the expansion of trade. Mr. Carnegie looks at this 



ii6 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

question in the dry light of hard business experience, 
and the test he applies to the policy of Great Britain 
is — "Does it pay?" This test may seem harshly 
materialistic, but this is a materialistic world, and how- 
ever glorious may be her traditions, however extensive 
may be her empire, however powerful may be her 
army and navy, if Great Britain loses her trade these 
things cannot prevent her downfall. To-day com- 
merce is the life-blood of a nation, and should be 
regarded as its paramount consideration. This fact 
has been lost sight of in the territorial expansion of 
Great Britain. They go to an enormous expense in 
opening up vast territories and in conquering subject 
races, but they receive no corresponding compensation 
under their policy of free trade which gives the German 
and American equal commercial opportunities with 
themselves. They acquire shadowy supremacy with- 
out any material benefits. ''Trade does not follow the 
flag/* Mr. Carnegie argues; ''it follows the lowest price 
current y 

The gist of his argument is that Great Britain should 
have a Minister of Commerce, whose special work 
would be to protect the interests of British traders, 
and utilize to the full for commercial purposes their 
world-wide possessions. This office will no doubt be 
created when international competition has captured 
more of their markets abroad. 



INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION 117 

Foreign trade has not such a strong fascination 
for Mr. Carnegie as may be supposed. He told the 
Institute of Civil Engineers, in May, 1901, "You must 
look at home, and develop the material you have 
there. The way to get hold of foreign markets is to 
get hold of and conquer the markets at home." 

Commercial supremacy and commercial education 
are indissolubly linked together, and when we turn to 
examine Mr. Carnegie's views on education we find 
much that is worthy of notice. We have already 
mentioned his firm belief that the policy he pursued of 
throwing responsibility upon young men and taking 
those of exceptional ability into partnership has con- 
tributed more than anything else to his success in busi- 
ness. It is not the unrivaled resources of America 
the English have cause to envy most, he says, nor its 
wonderful machinery, but the class of yoimg men that 
manage the undertakings there, and, he adds, he can 
find no such class in England. The reason why 
English yoimg men are not the equals, in his opinion, 
to their American cousins is simply because they have 
not had the same educational opportunities. 

"It is a result of your system of education," he 
told a representative of the Daily News Weekly. " The 
universities of America do not exalt science above 
classics, but they do place them upon a more equal 
footing than you do. Classical subjects have received 



ii8 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

encouragement and have been developed, whereas 
scientific education has not been. Now, I believe that 
the continuance of Great Britain as one of the principal 
manufacturing nations will not be secured by having 
a greater number of her people learning the dead 
languages of dead nations, dwelling together in the 
past, but by a larger percentage of her young men 
becoming experts in various branches of science, and 
being taught to be scientific managers of her industries, 
displacing the rule of thumb managers. It is a ques- 
tion what type of a man is now needed to keep England 
abreast of her competitors." 

In connection with this question of trade supremacy, 
the following information relating to commercial educa- 
tion in America will be of interest. No less than five 
of the leading colleges and universities of the United 
States have given a place in their curriculum to 
commercial courses or have established Schools of 
Commerce. The students are given a course of teaching 
comprising the most serviceable instruction in the 
following subjects: bookkeeping, commercial geogra- 
phy, transport systems, money and banking, busi- 
ness organization and management, economics and 
economic history. In addition, it is recognized that 
the prospective manufacturer should be familiar with 
the various processes through which the chief articles 
of commerce have to pass before they reach their 



INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION 119 

finished state. This knowledge is imparted through a 
course on "The Materials of Commerce," which is 
illustrated as far as possible by practical experiments. 
A knowledge of law is a further advantage to a business 
man, and this is provided by courses on commercial 
law, tariff legislation, and the laws pertaining to labor, 
capital and corporations. The usual instruction in 
modem languages, chemical research and physical 
science is given, and students are at liberty to study 
for a particular trade or for work in a foreign 
country. Candidates for a degree must pass in all 
these branches. 

A thorough commercial education is the strongest 
foundation for business success, but Mr. Carnegie 
believes that another phase of knowledge is also 
requisite. He says : " The study of human nature is the 
best education for any business man. But whether 
a young man chooses a scientific or a classical educa- 
tion, if he wishes to pursue a business career he should 
not remain long at college or at the university. All my 
brilliant partners began hard, practical work in their 
* teens. I think a course at a modem university from 
nineteen to twenty-four will not teach a young fellow 
to be as successful a business man as if he had been 
sent into business in a subordinate capacity. This is 
not disparaging university education, for I limit the 
-observation to the business career." 



I20 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

Mr. Carnegie is, above everything else, a man of 
action. He is a self-made millionaire, and has built 
up his huge fortune by the power of his brain; it is 
therefore only natural he should have a strong admira- 
tion for those who seek practical experience and are 
desirous of adding to their knowledge by contact with 
hard work. He has, however, a strong faith in educa- 
tion, as was so strikingly illustrated by his munificent 
gifts of $250,000 to the Birmingham University, 
$10,000,000 for the Scotch universities and $10,000,000 
to the Carnegie Institute, and in this sphere it may be 
taken for granted he will distribute a large share of his 
wealth. Compared with other nations Mr. Carnegie 
recognizes the backward state of technical education 
in England, and if they are to retain their commercial 
position he thinks it will be absolutely necessary for 
them to overhaul and modernize their educational 
machinery and to put it in proper and efficient working 
order. To keep in the forefront of the international 
trade fight will mean a stem struggle, but it can be 
accomplished, he says, if Britain goes to the root of 
the question and arms the rising generation with a 
sound and practical education. In the letter he sent 
to the Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, M. P., offering 
to give $250,000 to the funds of the Birmingham 
University, he stated his views on commercial edu- 
cation in a very plain and businesslike manner. 



INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION 121 

"Dear Mr. Chamberlain: — ^You have interested 
me in your proposed university at Birmingham for the 
people of the Midlands. 

*' May I suggest that an opportunity exists for such 
an institution to perform a great service for the whole 
country ? 

"After the members of the Iron and Steel Institute 
had returned to New York from their tour of observa- 
tion through the United States, the officials dined with 
me. Many pleasing short speeches were made. The 
close of one I have never forgotten. A partner in one 
of your foremost steel companies said: 'Mr. Carnegie, 
it is not your wonderful machinery, not even your 
unequaled supplies of minerals, which we have most 
cause to envy. It is something worth both of these 
combined — ^the class of scientific young experts you 
have to manage every department of your works. 
We have no corresponding class in. England,^ 

"Never were truer words spoken. Now this class 
you must sooner or later secure if Britain is to remain 
one of the principal manufacturing nations, and it 
seems to me the Midlands is the very soil upon which 
it can most surely be produced. 

"If I were in your place I should recognize the 
futility of trying to rival Oxford and Cambridge, which, 
even if possible, would be useless. The twin seats of 
learning have their mission, and fulfil it ; but Binning- 



122 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

ham should make the scientific the principal depart- 
ment, the classical subsidiary. If Birmingham were 
to adopt the policy suggested, taking our Cornell 
University as its model, where the scientific has won 
first place in the number of students, and give degrees 
in science as in classics, I should be delighted to con- 
tribute the last ;£5 0,000 of the sum you have set out to 
raisCj to establish a scientific department. 

" I am sure our people of the Birmingham across the 
Atlantic will heartily approve this gift to their proto- 
type on this side of the water, for what does not the 
younger owe of its greatness and prosperity to the old 
land. Bessemer, Siemens, Thomas — the triumvirate 
through whose inventions we have been enabled to 
make and sell steel by the millions of tons at three 
pounds for a penny — all made their experiments in 
your midst. 

''Let the gift, therefore, be considered as only a 
slight acknowledgment of a debt which Pittsburgh, the 
greatest beneficiary of your steel inventions, can never 
hope to repay. 

"Wishing you speedy success, 
" Sincerely yours, 

"Andrew Carnegie." 

The object of this broad-minded millionaire is to 
place before the youth of Britain the same educational 
opportunities as are enjoyed by young men in the 



INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION 123 

United States and on the Continent. If words of 
warning and magnificent pecuniary assistance can rouse 
his native land to make adequate preparations for com- 
mercial training, he should be eminently successful. 
He lays great stress on the need of giving the young 
men who are to be the future captains of industry a 
suitable and practical education. Much depends on 
the artisan, he once said, but still more depends on the 
commercial skill of the man at the wheel. Clever 
managers with up-to-date methods and modern ideas 
will be almost certain to secure good paying orders, 
and it is this class of men he desires to see controlling 
England's industries; and then he has little doubt she 
will hold her own against the competition of the world. 
In Mr. Carnegie's opinion England's national indus- 
tries are at the present time handicapped greatly 
by obsolete machinery. Their equipments, he says, 
need not merely to be altered but "revolutionized." 
In one of his journeys through England he came across 
a tanyard in charge of which was a workman of the 
extreme rural type, who informed Mr. Carnegie that his 
old master had just sold out. The fresh owner had 
new-fangled notions, and was spending "heaps o* 
money" in building a steam-engine, which he invited 
the visitor to inspect. This engine was expected to do 
the work much quicker, but, remarked the old work- 
man, " I've heard tell by some as knows it's na sae gud 



124 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

for the leather." This incident, Mr. Carnegie says, 
aptly illustrates the tenacity with which Britishers 
hold to what their fathers did before them. Although 
somewhat exaggerated, this conclusion contains much 
truth, and the ill-advised obstinacy of the British 
workman and the short - sighted policy of trade 
unionism is largely answerable for it. Mr. Carnegie 
absolutely fought trade unionism in his own works, 
when it attempted to encumber him with restrictions 
and to dictate to him how he should manage his 
business. 

For the saner type of trade unionism, as we have 
seen, he has considerable sympathy. The American 
workman comes up to his ideal as the quickest and 
most versatile industrial hand in the world. In sharp 
contrast to his prototype in England, he is distinguished 
for his habits of sobriety and thrift, and these, in Mr. 
Carnegie's opinion, largely accotmt for his superiority. 
England's drink bill per head of the population is 
nearly fifty per cent, higher than that of the United 
States, and to this marked difference he attributes 
their inferiority to the Yankee in business foresight 
and industrial skill. 

But the faults of the working classes by no means 
exonerate the masters from blame. It is, indeed, in 
fertility and originality of ideas that Brother Jonathan 
so easily surpasses England. They are fearfully slow, 



INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION 125 

Mr. Carnegie says, in adopting new improvements, and 
pointing to electricity as a concrete instance, and 
referring to the achievements of Edison, "the wizard 
of science," he mentions the significant fact that a 
capital of over $200,000,000 is invested in about 
20,000 miles of electric railways in the United States. 
England is just awakening to the value of this form of 
locomotion, and so far nearly all the great electrical 
undertakings in England are worked by American 
capital. But where British manufacturers are most 
heavily handicapped is in their means of transport. 
The " miserable little trucks on your railways and the 
extortionate charges" fill Mr. Carnegie with disgust 
and amazement. He once said that if all the existing 
rolling stock in England were destroyed it would be a 
blessing to British industry rather than a calamity. 

His views on this great question of International 
Competition as it affects British interests have been 
severely criticized, but there is no denying the fact 
that many of his suggestions and opinions contain 
much sound common sense and are of much practical 
value. He is a man of conviction, and having satisfied 
himself upon the justness of his cause, is not afraid to 
express his views. He is a candid friend to his native 
land, and all who are open to conviction will thank 
him for the genuine interest and thoughtftil counsel. 
Britain could do with more men of Mr. Carnegie's 



126 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

caliber, who put duty and conviction before fame and 
applause. British manufacturers can draw many- 
valuable lessons from his industrial methods and his 
views on the question of International Competition. 



His Gospel of Wealth 



CHAPTER IX 

HIS GOSPEL OF WEALTH 

IT is rare indeed to hear ''the advantages of poverty** 
eulogized by a millionaire. In a world where 
selfish interests are ever3rwhere pursued it seems almost 
an irony to ask any one to believe that a man with 
unfettered millions can delight to sing its praises and to 
condemn those who hoard wealth from selfish motives. 
Of all the puzzling paradoxes surely this is the greatest ! 
At first sight it would seem that the author of such a 
doctrine must be a confirmed miser. But Mr. Carnegie 
is neither a millionaire miser nor a meddling moralizer, 
for if any man practises what he preaches, that man 
is Andrew Carnegie. Yet he is not a philanthropist. 
He lays no claim to such a title. A philanthropist he 
defines as a man who gives his wealth and follows it up 
by personal labor. Mr. Carnegie has given vast sums 
away, but he has not carried out the second stipulation, 
and therefore the honor of being styled "a philan- 
thropist" is not, he says, his right. As it would be" 
impossible for him to concentrate his energies upon one 
particular kind of work, owing to the enormous amoimt 
of labor involved in the distribution of his fortune, he 

129 



I30 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

has an excellent excuse, and we must forgive him for 
his modest interpretation of the title. But if he is 
not a philanthropist, what is he? A _ trustee for the 
Englishes peqkmg_j^^ he says, should be 

held in trust for the benefit of the whole commimity. 
Attached to its ownership are great responsibilities, and 
if the millionaire fails to carry them out it will be 
counted by future generations as a gross neglect of 
public duty^^ 

/Mr. Carnegie's gospel has many different aspects, 
but it falls into two main parts: the advantages of 
poverty and the responsibilities of surplus wealth. 
His views on the distribution of wealth have always 
excited a good deal of interest. They are distinguished 
by characteristic thoroughness, striking originality, 
lofty ideals and a large-hearted spirit; and coming 
from one who is a millionaire many times over, it is only 
natural they should have attracted world-wide atten- 
tion./ Mr. Carnegie during the last fifteen years has 
written several prominent articles on the subject of 
wealth, and given expression to his' views in a number 
of speeches and conversations, y^e was asked some 
years ago, "What are the gifts a youth, who has the 
ambition to make millions, should be endowed with at 
his birth ?' * The steel millionaire replied : * ' The great- 
est of all advantages with which he can begin life is 
that of being poor. The man who wishes to make 



HIS GOSPEL OF WEALTH 131 

millions should not be born with a silver spoon in his_ 
mouth. He must feel that it is sink or swim with j 
him. , He must start his life with no bladders, no / 
life-preservers, no support." This advice is character- 
istic of its giver, and there is no doubt as to the ' 
conviction which inspired it.y/ ^ 

fl^hQ same may be said of all Mr. Carnegie's views. 
He holds that there is no better schoolmaster than 
adversity, and that the youth who has witnessed the 
struggles of his parents against poverty's hardships 
has had the best of all incentives to successy Having 
driven the wolf from the door of his own home, he can 
speak from actual experience, and though many will 
find themselves unable to follow Mr. Carnegie all the 
way, yet it cannot be denied that if poverty teaches 
nothing else it impresses the virtue of thrift, and in some 
cases, but not all, urges a youth to make his position 
in the world by industrious and honorable effort. 
When Mr. Carnegie refers to the "poor" boy he does 
not mean the unfortunate urchins of slumland, who 
are reared amid the vilest surroimdings of immorality 
and filth. To contend that such conditions were 
*' advantageous" would be absurd. To quote his own 
words: "It is not so much to raise the submerged 
tenth, but to help the swimming tenth to keep their 
heads above water." It is the members of this "swim- 
ming tenth" — in other words, the industrious poor, who 



132 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

have to struggle hard day by day to earn an honest 
living, and who try, little by little, to improve their 
position, that Mr. Carnegie is concerned with. 

In 1 89 1 he contributed an article on 'The Advan- 
tages of Poverty" to the Nineteenth Century Review, 
in which he dealt at considerable length with the ques- 
tion of hereditary wealth and the influence of home 
life on the careers of young men. Poor boys reared 
by their parents have, he maintained, many advan- 
tages over those taught by hired strangers and exposed 
to the temptations of wealth; and to him it is not 
surprising that they become ''the leaders in every 
branch of human action." He pictures them as 
athletes trained for the contest, with "sinews braced, 
indomitable wills, resolved to do or die." Such boys, 
he says, "always have marched and always will march 
straight to the front and lead the world ; they are the 
epoch-makers." The men who have lifted and 
advanced the race and been supremely great in every 
field of human triumph, he argues, have not been those 
endowed with wealth and hereditary rank, the posses- 
sion of which "is almost fatal to greatness and good- 
ness," but young men who have been nurtured "in 
the bracing school of poverty — the only school capable 
of producing the supremely great, the genius." 

Mr. Carnegie's glowing defense of poverty's blessings 
is open to argument; but nevertheless we cannot but 



HIS GOSPEL OF WEALTH 133 

admire his ardent enthusiasm and strong convictions. 
Poverty has an altogether opposite effect on different 
natures, and in some cases its environment acts as a wet 
blanket on youthful hopes, and its menial work tends 
to bltmt the intellect and overtax the physical and 
moral strength. Mr. Carnegie's career is a singular 
exception . We cannot judge by one particular instance , 
but apply the principles generally. With a feeling 
of sincere pleasure we quote the following paragraph 
from an article by one who has experienced all the 
bitterness of a hard struggle with poverty and, while 
successful in his fight for fortime, has retained intact 
the simplicity of his soul amid all the enticements of 
superfluous wealth. "Among many advantages aris- 
ing, not from the transmission of hereditary wealth and 
position, but from the transmission of hereditary 
poverty and health, there is one which, to my mind, 
outweighs all the others combined. It is not permitted 
the children of king, millionaire or noble to have father 
and mother in the close and realizing sense of these 
sacred terms. The name of father and the holier name 
of mother are but names to the child of the rich and 
the noble. To the poor boy these are the words he 
conjures with, his guides, the anchors of his soul, the 
objects of his adoration. Neither nurse, servant, gover- 
ness nor tutor has come between him and his parents. 
In his father he has had tutor, companion, counselor 



134 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

/' and judge. It is not given to the bom millionaire, 
noble or prince to dwell upon such an inheritage as is 

i^ \ his who has had in his mother, nurse, seamstress, 

^4 teacher, inspirer, saint — ^his all in all.'* 

Mr. Carnegie's whole article was distinguished by- 
great force and clearness. It consisted chiefly of a 
spirited reply to Mr. Gladstone's and the Rev. Hugh 
Price Hughes's criticisms upon his famous article 
^'Wealth," which appeared in the North American 
Review for June, 1889. This created a great sensation 
at the time of its publication, and drew forth comments 
from a number of public men in England and America, 
prominent among whom were President Cleveland, 
Cardinal Manning, Rabbi Adler, Cardinal Gibbons 
and Bishop Potter. It formed the topic of a com- 
prehensive discussion in the principal reviews and 
newspapers, and though generally commended, it 
did not escape trenchant criticism from some 
quarters. 

We would have liked to have quoted in full many- 
striking passages from this article, but must be con- 
tent with some brief extracts. At the present time, 
when Mr. Carnegie is just entering upon the gigantic 
task of distributing his wealth and carrying into 
practice the principles he then laid down, his written 
views on the subject possess additional importance. The 
three articles he has written on the influence and use of 



HIS GOSPEL OF WEALTH 135 

wealth will repay study by those who are interested in 
the great social questions of the hour. 

The article opened with a reference to the changed 
conditions of industrial life and the transference of 
labor from the home to the factory. He ridiculed the 
suggestion of "good old times," and strongly main- 
tained that every section of society is now living under 
happier and better conditions. The laborer has now 
more comforts than the farmer had a few generations 
ago, and the farmer more than the landlord previously 
enjoyed. These changed conditions have caused a 
division between employer and employee, but this, he 
holds, has not been without its good results. The law 
of competition is now the dominating influence in the 
commercial world, and ''the survival of the fittest" the 
recognized basis of individual action. He quoted the 
maxim, "If thou dost not sow, thou shalt not reap," 
and gave a well-deserved reproof to the growth of 
idleness and wasteful luxury. Socialistic theories 
which mean "revolution, not evolution," were severely 
treated. "There can never be equality of power or 
pay in this world," he wrote, "where individualism is 
necessary to its progress and proper government." 
/lie then went on to state that there are three modes 
^ which surplus wealth can be distributed. It can be 
left to the family, or bequeathed for public purposes, 
or administered during their lives by its possessors. /^ 



136 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

Under the first and second modes most of the world's 
wealth has been applied. Both, in Mr. Carnegie's 
opinion, are injudicious, and especially the custom of 
leaving wealth to the eldest son, which, he says, is done 
simply to gratify the family pride of maintaining titles 
intact. To leave fortunes to children is *'to impose upon 
them a burden and a disadvantage." This assertion 
bears the stamp of originality, but we are afraid it will 
not find many disciples among modem millionaires. 
''Beyond providing for the wife and daughters mod- 
erate sources of income, and a very moderate allowance 
indeed, if any, for the sons, men may well hesitate, for 
it is no longer questionable that great sums bequeathed 
oftener work more for injury than for benefit to the 
recipient. Wise men will soon decide that for the 
best interests of the members of their own families 
and of the State such bequests are an improper use of 
their means." Mr. Carnegie believes in the millionaire 
giving his son a good and efficient education, and, if he 
enters public life, according him proper support ; but 
to the idle spendthrift he would not give a penny, 
idleness and waste he detests, and he is never tired of 
denouncing these abuses in rich and poor alike. Work 
is the oxygen of a happy and contented Hfe, and without 
it man degenerates. The indolent and listless habits 
of the modem ''aristocratic" young man form a typical 
illustration^ 



HIS GOSPEL OF WEALTH 137 

Mr. Carnegie is strongly in favor of death duties. 
First, because they are a profitable source of income 
for the State; and, secondly, because men should dis- 
pose of their surplus wealth while living. He thus 
characterizes the leaving of wealth for special uses: 
"As to the second mode, that of leaving wealth at 
death for public uses, it may be said that this is only a 
means for the disposal of wealth, provided a man is 
content to wait until he is dead before he becomes 
much good in the world.*' 

He can see no grace in the gifts of a man who, imao.e 
to take his money with him, is compelled, by mere 
force of circumstances, to make some bequests before 
he dies. The man who leaves his wealth at death 
*' erects a monument to his own folly," for it is very 
seldom his expressed desires are realized afterward. 
*'By taxing estates heavily at death, the State marks 
its condemnation of the selfish millionaire's tinworthy 
life,," 

/Mx. Carnegie holds that the man of wealth should 
personally superintend the distribution of his assets.^ 
To quote again from the article : ^ 

"There remains, then, only one mode of using great 
fortunes ; but in this we have the true antidote for the 
temporary unequal distribution of wealth, the recon- 
ciliation of the rich and the poor — a reign of harmony 
another ideal, differing, indeed, from that of the 



138 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

Commtinist in requiring only the further evolution of 
existing conditions, not the total overthrow of our 
civilization. It is founded upon the present most 
intense individualism, and the race is prepared to put 
it in practice by degrees whenever it pleases. Under 
its sway we shall have an ideal State, in which the sur- 
plus wealth of the few will become, in the best sense, 
the property of the many, because administered for the 
common good; and this wealth, passing through the 
hands of the few, can be made a much more potent 
force for the elevation of our race than if distributed 
in small sums to the people themselves. Even the 
poorest can be made to see this, and to agree that great 
sums gathered by some of their fellow citizens and 
spent for public purposes, from which the masses reap 
the principal benefit, are more valuable to them than 
if scattered among themselves in trifling amounts 
through the course of many years. 

He says: "It is well to remember that it requires 
the exercise of not less ability than that which acquired 
the wealth to use it so as to be really beneficial to the 
community." That is one of the most significant 
tenets of his gospel, and those wiseacres who take such 
supreme delight in offering the Laird of Skibo advice, 
and proposing to him schemes, would save themselves 
much time and disappointment if they made a note 
of this decisive principle, and the fact that Mr. Carnegie 



HIS GOSPEL OF WEALTH 139 

has an unbroken law "to help only those who help 
themselves." 

/Rich men, he says, have cause to be thankful for one 
inestimable boon — "they have it in their power, dur- 
ing their lives, to busy themselves in organizing bene- 
factions from which the masses of their fellows will 
derive lasting benefit, and thus they will dignify their 
own lives. '^ 

/X)ne of the most striking passages in the article was 
the one which denounced indiscriminate charity. " It 
were better for mankind that the millions of the rich 
were thrown into the sea than so spent as to encourage 
the slothful, the drunken, the unworthy .i/Of every 
thousand dollars spent in so-called charity to-day, it 
is probable that nine hundred and fifty dollars are 
unwisely spent — so spent, indeed, as to produce the 
very evils which it hopes to mitigate or cure." Busi- 
ness methods are indispensable, he maintains, in the 
task of distributing wealth. Before a gift is made the 
donor should institute inquiries to find out if the object 
is worthy of support. This is a rule which, though liable 
to err on the side of severity, has many sound recom- 
mendations, and is likely to be mor^ generally adopted 
in the future by men of wealth. pJlr. Carnegie has an. 
idea that many well-meant bequests greatly encourage 
idleness, and rather support those who " neither toil nor 
spin," he would keep his millions under lock and ke^^ 



I40 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

While approving of Mr. Carnegie's businesslike 
methods in the distribution of his wealth, many think 
he would be well advised to widen his horizon and take 
a more liberal view of the world's voluntary work. So 
far his attention has been confined to one particular 
corner. That is a very promising field, and one of the 
most worthy, there is no doubt, but yet there are 
^ther plots which have very strong claims, and only 
need developing to yield abundant harvests. With 
more leisure to look around, he will doubtless discover 
some of the good qualities which distinguish other noble 
branches of social work in which self-help is the sus- 
taining force. 

'Mr. Carnegie has laid down what he considers to be 
the duty of the man of wealth. ' ' First, to set an example 
of modest, unostentatious living, shunning display and 
extravagances ; to provide moderately for the legitimate 
wants of those dependent upon him; after doing so to 
consider all surplus revenues which come to him simply 
as trust fimds, which he is called upon to administer, 
and strictly botmd as a matter of duty to administer, 
in the manner which in his judgment is best calcu- 
lated to benefit the community. The man of wealth 
thus becomes the mere agent and trustee for his poorer 
brethren, bringing to their service his superior wisdom, 
experience and ability to administer, and doing for them 



better than they would or could do to thpmselvesy^ 

C>4rL Vto./ 



HIS GOSPEL OF WEALTH 141 

This is a high-minded ideal scheme of excellent 
merits, and when the world's millionaires embrace it 
one and all we shall look with greater faith to that 



.Xh 



"One far off divine event 
To which the whole nation moves.' 



'hat his gospel is sotmd and practicable the world 
has already had many convincing proofs, not the least 
in scope and results being Mr. Carnegie's own bene- 
factionsV He has written a list of commandments, 
specially suited for millionaires, and we trust his gospel 
will, yet find many adherents. One thing is certain, 
those who follow it will write their names indelibly upon 
their country's history, and be venerated by succeed- 
ing generations. 

Mr. Carnegie has given his gospel the best possible 
christening, and there are significant signs that he is 
likely to have many worthy followers. While millions 
are a burden to some men, and crush both soul and 
energy, he finds in them no source of anxiety. They 
are his, and yet they are not. Their disbursement 
will give him the greatest happiness and abolish all 
thoughts of anxiety from his mind. 

Mr. Carnegie has taken a glimpse into the future, 
when he hopes the problem of rich and poor will be 
solved. *' The laws of accumulation and distribution," 
he says, * * will be left free. Individualism will continue, 
but the millionaire will be but a trustee for the poor, 



142 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

entrusted for a season with a great part of the increased 
wealth of the commtinity and administering it for that 
community far better than it could or would have 
done for itself. A stage in the development of the race 
will thus be reached, when it will be clearly seen that 
there is no mode of disbursing surplus wealth creditable 
to thoughtful, earnest men into whose hands it flows, 
save by using it year by year for the general good." 

Mr Carnegie thinks this new era in the world's 

history has already dawned ; and as the light becomes 

more distinct he prophecies that the voice of the people 

will strongly condemn the man who hoards wealth 

instead of wisely allotting it to better his fellow men. 

Making handsome bequests before the last hour will 

not earn the full reward. Giving during life is, in 

his opinion, the only just and proper course. 

^-^ "The day is not far distant," he says, ''when the 

I man who dies, leaving behind him millions of available 

— J wealth, which was free for him to administer during 

\ life, will pass away unwept, unhonored and unstmg, 

/ no matter to what use he leaves the dross which he can- 

^-~4iot take with him. Of such as these the public verdict 

V \ -will be: 'The man who dies thus rich dies disgraced' 

\ Such, in my opinion, is the true gospel concerning 

V. wealth, obedience to which is destined some day to 

solve the problem of rich and poor, and to bring peace 

on earth and goodwill to men." 



HIS GOSPEL OF WEALTH 143 

This noble ideal, drawn so vividly and urged so 
forcibly by the Pittsburgh millionaire, is what the world 
is waiting to see realized. Mr. Carnegie has already 
proved by practice that he believes in his great ideal. 
It is something more than words to him. He is con- 
vinced that it can be applied, and now that he has cut 
himself clear from all business duties, and has at his 
unrestricted command more than $250,000,000, the 
world may expect some epoch-making announcements 
during the next few years. 

In his review of the "Gospel of Wealth," Mr. 
Gladstone hailed Mr. Carnegie as a philanthropist of 
the highest order: "This self-made millionaire has 
confronted the moral and social problem of wealth 
more boldly, so far as I know, than any previous 
writer. His coiirage and frankness, both of them 
superlative, are among the attendant virtues which 
walk in the train of munificence not less modest 
and simple than it is habitual and splendid." 

The Rev. Hugh Price Hughes, in commenting upon 
Mr. Camegie*s "Gospel of Wealth," asserted that 
"the progress of millionaires is inevitably accompanied 
by the growing poverty of their fellow-countrymen." 

To this line of argument Mr. Carnegie made a very 
powerful reply. "The progress and the evolution of 
the millionaire," he insisted, " is beneficial to the whole 
community. So far from it being a fact that 'mil- 



144 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

lionaires at one end of the scale mean paupers at the 
other/ the reverse is obviously true. In a country 
where millionaires exist there is very little excuse for 
pauperism. Millionaires can only grow amid general 
prosperity, and this is largely promoted by their exer- 
tions. Their profits accrue in periods when wages are 
high, and the higher the wages that have to be paid 
the higher the revenues of the employer." The Rev. 
Mr. Hughes, in his criticism, also said that in a State 
under really Christian principles "a millionaire would 
be an impossibility." Mr. Carnegie neatly retorted 
that there would also be "no need for parsons," and 
he jocularly added, *'the successors of Mr. Hughes 
and myself, arm-in-arm, will make a pretty pair, out 
in search of some light work with heavy pay." 

In the North American Review for 189 1, Mr. Carnegie 
wrote a second article on his ''Gospel of Wealth." It 
was characterized by the same earnest spirit and busi- 
nesslike suggestions, and consisted in the main of a 
scheme by which the millionaire could, to the advant- 
age of the community, distribute his wealth. He again 
severely chastised the miser for his sins. Mr. Carnegie 
is thoroughly well versed in Biblical quotations, and 
very often when speaking or writing he repeats some 
well-known passage of Scripture, and draws his similes 
from the best of all books, but not always with due 
reverence. "There will be nothing to surprise the 



HIS GOSPEL OF WEALTH 145 

student of socialistic development," he wrote, **i£ 
society could approve the text which says that a camel 
can go through the eye of a needle more easily than 
a rich man can enter the kingdom of heaven." 

In the course of the article Mr. Carnegie dealt with 
seven objects which, in his opinion, were worthy of the / 
attention of those possessed of wealth, (i) To found 
or enlarge a university; (2) The erection of free libra- 
ries; (3) Establishment of hospitals or laboratories; 
(4) To present public parks; (5) to open public halls 
with organs; (6) To start swimming baths; (7) To 
build churches. 

At a time when all the world is wondering how he 
will dispose of his surplus wealth, his views as to the 
merits of these channels of usefulness will be interest- 
ing: ^ 
To found or enlarge a University. 

" Standing apart by itself there is the founding of a 
university by men enormously rich. By adding to 
and extending those tmiversities in existence a wide 
field remains for the millionaire as distinguished from 
the Croesus among millionaires." 

To found Free Libraries. 

** The result of my own study of the question : What 
is the best gift that can be given to a community? is, 
that a free library occupies the first place, provided that 
the community will accept and maintain it as a public 



146 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

institution, as much a part of the city property as its 
public schools, and indeed an adjunct to those. Closely 
allied to the library, and, where possible, attached to it, 
there should be rooms for an art gallery and museum, 
and a hall for such lectures and instruction as are pro- 
vided in the Cooper Union." 

To establish Hospitals and Laboratories. 
"We have another most important department in 
extension of hospitals, medical colleges, laboratories, 
and other institutions connected with the alleviation 
of human suffering, and especially with the prevention 
rather than the cure of human ills. The forms that 
benefactions to these may take are numerous, but 
probably none is more useful than that of building 
schools for the training of female nurses." 

To present Public Parks. 

" In the very front rank of benefactions public parks 
should be placed, always provided that the community 
undertakes to maintain, beautify and preserve invio- 
late the parks given to it." 

To open Public Halls with Organs. 

"We have another good use for surplus wealth in 
providing for our cities halls suitable for meetings of all 
kinds, especially for concerts of elevating music. Our 
cities are rarely provided with halls for these purposes. 
The gift of a hall to any city lacking one is an excellent 



HIS GOSPEL OF WEALTH 147 

use of surplus wealth for the good of a community, 
provided the city agrees to maintain and use it." 
To erect Swimming Baths. 

" In another respect we are still much behind Europe, 
A form of beneficence which is not uncommon there 
is providing swimming baths for the people." 
To build Churches. 

" Churches as fields for surplus wealth have purposely 
been reserved until the last, because, these being sec- 
tarian, every man will be governed by his own attach- 
ments ; therefore it may be said gifts to churches are not 
in one sense gifts to the community at large, but to 
special classes. The millionaire should not figure how 
cheaply this structure can be built, but how perfect it 
can be made. But, having given the building, the donor 
should stop there ; the support of the church should be 
upon its own people. There is not much genuine 
religion in the congregation or much good to flow from 
the church which is not supported at home." 

With this last statement there will be a general 
agreement. A religion bereft of self-sacrificing charity 
is not worthy of the name. Mr. Carnegie has given 
liberally to many of the objects specified in this article, 
including the presentation of some hundreds of organs 
to places of worship and public halls ; but he has yet 
to build his first church. The main reasons for his 
abstinence from this branch of philanthropy are the 



148 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

narrowness and sectarianism which distinguishes the 
church of the present day. A united church, with one 
plain form of religion, would probably find in Mr. 
Carnegie a generous supporter ; but while there are so 
many sects, so many divisions, so many conflicting 
creeds, it is impossible for one of a very broad mind 
and national sympathies to give his money to one par- 
ticular branch of religion. So he holds himself aloof, 
leaving the work to those who have more faith in their 
self -chosen mode of worship. 

It is a matter of general surprise that Mr. Carnegie 
has not helped any branch of church work, and there 
have been many hasty judgments passed upon his 
attitude by good people, who have written him long 
letters asking for support toward "their forthcoming 
bazaar or church extension scheme," but to their 
disappointment and vexation no notice has been taken 
of their carefully posted epistles. A little thought and 
study of the man and his views would have convinced 
the good-hearted letter-writer that to build hopes of 
receiving either help or a reply would be entirely delu- 
sive. Nothing can be lost by asking. It is well to 
cultivate faith and hope, but also most unwise to live 
tmder the delusion that every rich man appealed to 
would send his cheque by return of post. It may be 
very impolite of Mr. Carnegie not even to reply, but has 
not the bombarded millionaire some excuse when it is 



HIS GOSPEL OF WEALTH 149 

remembered he is the recipient of some five himdred 
letters — some very bulky and formidable — every day. 
They flow from all comers of the globe into one silent 
grave— the waste-paper basket. Not one in a thousand 
reaches Mr. Carnegie's hands. They are sifted by keen, 
watchful eyes, and the majority meet with the same 
cruel fate. It is certainly good for the paper trade, 
but troublesome for the secretaries, and mercilessly 
destructive to the fond hopes of the senders. 

Mr. Carnegie concluded his article on "The Best | 
Fields for Philanthropy" with the following impressive Ik/ 
declaration: "The Gospel of Wealth but echoes/^ 
Christ's words; it calls upon the ^millionaire to sell all 
he hath and give the highest and best to the poor, by\ 
administering his estate for his fellow men before he is \ 
called to lie down and rest upon the bosom of mother / 
earth. So doing he will approach his end no longer the / 
ignoble hoarder of useless millions; poor, very poor 
indeed in money, but rich, very rich in the affection, 
gratitude and admiration of his fellow men, and 
sweeter far, soothed and sustained by the still sweet 1 
voice within, which whispering tells him that because \ 
he has lived perhaps one small portion of the great \ 
world has been bettered just a little. This much is 1 
sure, against such riches as these no bar will be found / 
at the gates of Paradise." '"^"^ 

Mr. Carnegie has put before himself a noble and lofty 



I50 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

ideal. ^^lis "Gospel of Wealth" found general accept- 
ance. The world was amazed at its generous and liberal- 
hearted suggestions, and the spirit of unselfishness and 
practical charity which characterized it throughout. It 
was in many respects a imique manifesto, ably con- 
ceived, wisely arranged and strongly democratic in tone, 
and must be regarded as a valuable contribution to social 
science/Mr. Gladstone gave it his cordial approval and 
support, and a number of pubHc men of all shades of 
thought were imanimous in their eulogy of its high tone 
and practical utility. The Pittsburgh millionaire leaped 
with one bound into the world's public arena and 
became one of the foremost and most discussed men on 
this side of the Atlantic and in America./' It was one 
millionaire laying down the law for his brethren, a law 
which did not quite suit some tastes and inclinations. 
It was a bold attack upon miserly habits, selfish greed, 
and, of course, aroused some personal opposition and 
bitter criticism, but it was not without its good effect, 
and many wealthy men realized for the first ,time the 
great responsibihties attached to their riches. 

Mr. Carnegie has not only theoretically discussed 
his "Gospel of Wealth"; he has emphasized its utility 
by putting its principles into practice, and in this 
respect the future promises to be even richer in results 
than the past. This leads us to a consideration of his 
numierous gifts and benefactions. 



His Benefactions 



CHAPTER X 

HIS BENEFACTIONS 

GIVING is at once the easiest and most difficult of 
arts. It is an art, because before proficiency can 
be attained much experience is necessary, and the judg- 
ment needs to have imdergone a strict course of training. 
Liberality requires cultivation and care, like every other 
quality, and this more particularly applies to the man 
entrusted with millions of available wealth. It is 
somewhat of a paradox to find that wealth which has 
been amassed by conspicuous ability and hard toil is 
often distributed without discretion. 

This cannot be said of Mr. Andrew Carnegie. He 
has acquired his wealth by the power of his brains, but 
he has not squandered his earnings by indiscriminate 
charity. There may be some dissent with his methods, 
but general approval will be given to the munificent 
gifts he has made and the schemes he has financially 
launched. /His aim has been to help the masses, and 
to encourage those who are striving by personal effort 
to cultivate their intellects and to improve their 
positions in the world. Self-help has been the motive 
power which has influenced most of his benefactions, 

153 



154 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

and in this respect he has offered many splendid induce- 
ments to yoimg men to climb the ladder of success by 
the rungs of education^ 

Up to June, 1902, Mr. Carnegie's benefactions 
amounted to nearly $100,000,000. This huge total 
is probably the largest aggregate of money given away 
by one man. It is really impossible accurately to 
estimate what the Pittsburgh millionaire has distributed 
in gifts during the past thirty years, but any estimate 
is likely to be under rather than above the mark. 

Before he sailed for England in 1901 he left four 
letters announcing gifts amounting to $9,000,000. 
This munificent sum was made up of $4,000,000 to pro- 
vide a pension fund for the workmen of the Carnegie 
Steel Company, $1,000,000 for the support of the libra- 
ries established for workmen at his works, $5,200,000 
for the erection of sixty-five branch libraries in New 
York, and $1,000,000 to the city of St. Louis, Missouri, 
for a similar object. Although these four letters bore 
the same date, March 12, this does not signify that 
these magnificent gifts were hastily decided upon. 
The facts are just the reverse. These endowments 
were the result of careful inquiry, and had been under 
Mr. Carnegie's consideration for some time. Mr. 
Carnegie thinks before he gives, and often consults 
with intimate friends before he finally decides. 

At the time of his departure from New York he said : 



HIS BENEFACTIONS 155 

"I have just begun to give away money," and based 
upon that assertion the future should reveal unparal- 
leled gifts to an expectant world. One possessed of 
his great fortune has unlimited opporttmities at his 
command and immeasurable responsibilities placed 
upon him. His position is unique, and without parallel 
in modem history. The world lies at his feet awaiting his 
endpwments and wondering how he will fulfil his gospel, 
y/rhe greater portion of the money Mr. Carnegie has 
given away so far has been for the erection of free 
libraries. This is the steel millionaire's favorite 
sphere. He firmly believes it contains the most prolific 
soil, and only needs developing to play an important 
part in the world's educational progress^^r 

Speaking of circulating libraries he once said: **In 
all my experience I have never known so little produce 
such great, and as I believe, real beneficial and enduring 
results. I cannot but think it only needs to be known 
that the opportunity to do so much good is within the 
reach of wealthy men for so small a pittance from their 
store." His robust faith in the far-reaching results 
of well-equipped libraries is, like other strong convic- 
tions, the heritage of his boyhood. He has culled a 
leaf from his own life and applied it to the needs of the 
struggling poor and the respectable artisan, and it is 
from this source that his liberality in founding free 
libraries and public rooms has sprung. 



156 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

When a boy in Pittsburgh, striving with all his 
might to improve his prospects, he was permitted with 
some other youths to borrow books from the library of a 
gentleman named Colonel Anderson. Every Saturday 
afternoon the good-hearted Colonel was in attendance 
at his house to lend any of his four himdred books. 
Young Carnegie eagerly looked forward to those 
Saturday afternoons. They were the simny days of 
his youth, and the great joy they gave him has never 
faded from his memory. The opportunity of reading 
another book made the week swing along more 
smoothly. This privilege was shared by his brother 
Tom and his future partner, Mr. Phipps. The young 
telegraph messenger resolved in his buoyant enthusi- 
asm that if ever wealth fell to his lot he would use it to 
establish free libraries, so that poor boys might have 
opportunities of reading the best books. His two 
companions little thought that Andrew's resolve would 
one day be realized, and that he would earn for himself 
a name as the greatest friend free libraries have ever 
had since their birth. Mr. Carnegie holds the memory 
of Colonel Anderson's kindly act in the deepest rever- 
ence, and it is as his disciple he has entered upon his 
labor of love in presenting libraries to those towns 
that will undertake efficiently to maintain them. 
There is an element of romance in this striking episode 
which gives to the task he has set himself an additional 



HIS BENEFACTIONS 157 

charm. It is a magnificent testimony to the far- 
reaching value of a thoughtful action, and teaches a 
significant lesson, especially to those who have it 
within their power to help boys to rise to positions of 
usej^ulness. 

/Mr. Carnegie has made grants for the erection of 
more than 375 libraries in the United States alone/ 
and the following among a large number of American 
towns have benefited by his generosity: New York, 
$5,200,000; Pittsburgh, $9,500,000 for Institute 
and Technical School; St. Louis, $1,000,000; Alle- 
ghany, $275,000; Braddock, $500,000; Washington, 
$10,350,000, including the Carnegie Institution; 
Johnstown, $50,000; Fairfield, $40,000; San Fran- 
cisco, $750,000 ; Louisville, $250,000 ; Detroit, 
$750,000. The list of these gifts has now reached 
a magnificent total. 

He has been nearly as liberal to the people of his 
native land, and has presented or aided free libraries 
in Edinburgh, Dunfermline, Aberdeen, Peterhead, 
Inverness, Ayr, Elgin, Wick and Kirkwall, and has 
contributed to the establishment of many public halls 
and reading-rooms in various other towns. 

As an acknowledgment of his patriotic support he 
has been presented with the freedom of eleven towns 
of his native land, including the capital, a record of 
which he is justly proud. He greatly prizes these 



158 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

honors and the cordial welcome extended to him by 
his own countrymen. 

This does not, however, complete the list of his gifts 
to Scottish libraries. He signalized his return to his 
native land in May, 1901, by making a handsome offer 
to the Corporation of Glasgow. The Lord Provost, 
who presided at a meeting of the city council on May 
1 6th, announced that the following letter had been 
placed in his hands the previous day : 

"My Dear Lord Provost : — It will give me pleasure 
to provide the needed ;£i 00,000 for Branch Libraries, 
which are sure to prove of great advantage to the 
masses of the people. It is just fifty years since 
my parents with their little boys sailed from 
Broomielaw for New York in the barque Wiscassett, 
900 tons, and it is delightful to be permitted 
to commemorate the event upon my visit to you. 
Glasgow has done so much in municipal affairs to 
educate other cities, and to help herself, that it is a 
privilege to help her. Let Glasgow flourish ! So say 
all of us Scotsmen throughout the world. Always 
yours, Andrew Carnegie." 

Before we pass on to refer to his other benefactions, 
a description of the magnificent library he gave to 
Pittsburgh, the city of his commercial triumph, and 



HIS BENEFACTIONS 159 

those he presented to Allegheny and Braddock, will 
not be out of place; it will at least show how thor- 
oughly Mr. Carnegie carries out his free library 
schemes, and the efficient manner in which he launches 
these educational instruments upon their careers. 

The first library he endowed was the one at 
Braddock, a town of about 20,000 inhabitants, who are 
most of them employed at the Carnegie Steel Works. 
The library gradually outgrew its accommodation, and 
the formation of a Carnegie Club necessitated a large 
addition to the buildings. A new hall to seat 1,100 
people was built, and a large gymnasium with a swim- 
ming bath was added. In addition to these a billiard- 
room was opened for the use of club members. The 
club proved a great success, the members paying an 
annual subscription of six shillings. 

Soon afterward he offered to present to the neigh- 
boring town of Alleghany, at a cost of $375,000, a 
library with shelving accommodation for 70,000 vol- 
umes, a concert hall with a $10,000 organ, a lecture 
room, and an art gallery, providing the corporation 
found the site and the $15,000 per annum necessary 
to maintain it. The offer was accepted, and the 
buildings were formally opened by President Harrison 
on February 13, 1890. Four years after it had been 
opened the number of books in circulation was 
returned at 125,000 volumes, and it was* estimated that 



i6o ANDREW CARNEGIE 

160,000 periodicals had been in use throughout the 
year. The government of the library is invested in a 
committee elected by the City Council. 

The largest block of buildings Mr. Carnegie has 
erected is the vast fabric at Pittsburgh known as the 
Carnegie Institute. The name of Carnegie is indelibly 
associated with the great steel centre. He offered 
to provide $1,100,000 for free library buildings, 
on condition that the City Council agreed to spend 
annually on its maintenance and equipment $40,000, 
and that the management of the institution should be 
invested in a commtitee, half the members of which 
were to be nominated by himself, the other half by the 
Council. The offer at first was not accepted, but as the 
result of a popular agitation the sleepy Council were 
aroused to a sense of their duty, and after some manceu- 
vering, during which Mr. Carnegie's playful humor 
was highly successful, he agreed to renew his offer. 

The institute, which was opened in November, 1895, 
is a magnificent structiure of gray sandstone in the 
Italian renaissance style of architecture. On the ground 
floor a spacious entrance hall leads to the circulating 
library and reading-rooms. On the second floor are 
located the main reference library and the stack-room 
with a capacity of 1 50,000 volumes. One portion of the 
building comprises a music hall, capable of seating 
2, ICO persons, and a stage for sixty musicians and a 



HIS BENEFACTIONS i6i 

chorus of two hundred. It is enriched by a splendid 
pipe organ, on which every week a free organ recital 
is given. Mr. Carnegie borrowed the idea of giving 
free organ recitals from Birmingham, where for the 
first time he heard the city organist give a public recital. 
Another section of this vast block of imposing architec- 
ture is set aside as an art gallery and museum, and one 
wing of it supplies a spacious lecture hall and rooms for 
debating and scientific societies. In the basement are 
a number of classrooms, where instruction is given in 
various kinds of technical work. The building is 
illuminated throughout by electricity, and is fitted up 
with the most modern ventilating and heating appa- 
ratus. Connected with this library are seven distribu- 
ting stations in the outlying districts. The institute 
has been used to a remarkable extent by the workmen 
in the iron and steel works for improving their knowl- 
edge and gaining technical information about their 
work. Special literature on engineering, natural philos- 
ophy and the useful arts is widely read. Two million 
dollars has also been given to establish a Polytechnic 
School in Pittsburgh. These magnificent gifts speak 
louder than words of Mr. Carnegie's interest in and 
affection for the city wherein his success was won. 
There are many evidences that these great gifts of Mr. 
Carnegie have proved an immense influence for good 
on the life of the city. 



i62 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

■ Next to his adopted country his native land has been 
the largest recipient of his generosity. Dunfermline, 
his birthplace, may almost be regarded as an endowed 
city. To Mr. Carnegie it owes its swimming baths, 
library and technical school — a building which was 
opened in October, 1899, and is a most practical seat of 
learning. It has fine spacious workshops, fitted with 
modem tools for instruction in wood- work, metal- work, 
mechanical engineering and mining, and also a physical 
laboratory. Special attention is given to local indus- 
tries in the weaving department, which is equipped with 
two power looms and six hand looms. 

- England has so far participated but little in his 
lavish endowments. He, however, made an open offer 
to English-speaking towns in May, 1902. When he 
received the freedom of the city from the Guild of 
Plumbers in London, he stated in a speech that he stood 
ready to contribute toward the erection of a free 
library, provided the local authorities would spend 
not less than ten per cent, of his gift a year on its main- 
tenance. This offer has already been taken advantage 
of in several instances, and as it becomes more widely 
known no doubt there will be an increasing number 
of applications. This was not done on the spur of the 
moment, but after deliberate study, and we may be 
sure he meant what he said. 

While the majority of Mr. Carnegie's larger gifts 










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HIS BENEFACTIONS 163 

have thus been made to his adopted country and to his 
native land, there is one conspicuous exception — his 
donation of $250,000 to the endowment fund of the 
New Birmingham University. This handsome recog- 
nition of Birmingham's effort to estabHsh in her midst 
a modem university, where her sons can receive an 
educational equipment to enable them to vie success- 
fully with foreign competitors, was made through the 
Chancellor of the University, the Right Hon. Joseph 
Chamberlain, M. P., who, in communicating the offer 
to the Lord Mayor, wrote: "I feel convinced that this 
munificent offer of Mr. Andrew Carnegie wiU be grate- 
fully accepted by the promoters of the new university, 
and will be thoroughly appreciated by the people of 
Birmingham." Mr. Carnegie's tmexpected assistance 
was heartily welcomed by the inhabitants of the 
Midland metropolis, whose feelings of deep gratitude 
were admirably reflected in the leading columns of the 
two principal morning papers, the Daily Post and the 
Daily Gazette. It not only gave a fresh impetus to the 
scheme, but aroused widespread interest throughout 
the country. His letter, which we have already pro- 
duced, was made the theme of mmierous articles in the 
daily press, and stirred up hopes that the gift was to 
be the forerunner of others of a similar nature. Mr. 
Carnegie's generosity is always preceded by careful 
consideration, and there is no reason to doubt that he 



i64 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

will repeat his offer to any other English city desirous 
of f otinding a modem university with a faculty of com- 
merce as one of its distinguishing features. 

Mr. Carnegie's mtmificent help put the Birmingham 
University scheme on the highroad to success. It 
drew attention to the need of such a seat of learning 
in a district where nearly the whole of the inhabitants 
are dependent upon manufactures and industrial pur- 
suits, and also led to a movement being set on foot 
for the support of the scheme by employers of labor. 
To-day the Birmingham University is a reality, having 
received its charter and conferred its first degrees. 
Its endowment fund has reached the splendid total of 
$2,000,000, a result largely due to the strenuous efforts 
and personal influence of Mr. Joseph Chamberlain. 
As Mr. Carnegie views the progress this Midland 
university is making, and the sphere of usefulness 
it is aspiring to attain as a commercial power, he 
must feel thankful that he extended to it a helping 
hand. It promises to be one of his most fruitful gifts, 
and the future is sure to justify the wisdom of his 
decision and the thoughtful suggestions contained in 
his letter. 

A noticeable feature of Mr. Carnegie's benefactions 
is, as already stated, the small amount he has given 
to strictly religious work. In his " Gospel of Wealth" 
he gave his reasons for this decision. He has no 



HIS BENEFACTIONS 165 

atheistic prejudice against Christian work, but he 
believes that those who hold a particular creed should 
render it pecuniary as well as moral assistance. The 
millionaire who appoints himself a trustee for the 
English-speaking race cannot, in justice to his posi- 
tion, favor one special denomination, as his boimden 
duty is to distribute his wealth so that all may derive 
some benefit. His aims must be cosmopolitan, and 
the channels through which his benefactions flow wide 
enough for the whole race to participate in. Such is Mr. 
Carnegie's conviction, and although many people may 
think that he is thus cutting himself off from a f niitful 
sphere, and that his attitude is too rigid, it does not 
seem probable that he will depart from his line of 
action. Although Mr. Carnegie has not given directly 
to the maintenance of religious work, he has presented 
churches with a great many organs. He is passionately 
fond of music, and, like many others, he can derive 
greater benefit from its fascinating and soul-stirring 
eloquence than from listening to scores of sermons. 
He once said he would hold himself responsible for 
what the organ pealed forth on the Sabbath, but not 
for what issued from the pulpit. It is this inherent 
love of music, and faith in its boundless power, which 
has induced him to subscribe toward the cost of church 
organs. The founding of a National School of Music 
has engaged his attention upon more than one occasion. 



1 66 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

In 1 89 1 he erected at a cost of $2,000,000 a mag- 
nificent concert hall in New York for the use of the 
general public. This hall, which is situated in Fifty- 
seventh Street, will seat 3,000 persons. It is arranged 
on modern lines, and illimiinated by 4,000 electric 
lights. It is one of the finest concert halls in the United 
States, and has been greatly appreciated by the public 
since it was opened. The donor of this magnificent 
hall enjoys holding the office of President of the New 
York Philharmonic Society, which has its offices in the 
great building. 

We have already mentioned Mr. Carnegie's hand- 
some endowment of $4,000,000 as a pension fund for 
the work-people of the Carnegie Steel Company. The 
object of this fund is to provide small pensions or aids 
to such employees as, after long and creditable service, 
through exceptional circumstances need such help in 
their old age, and who make a good use of it. It is 
intended to give aid to the injured, or to their families, 
or to employees who are needy in old age through no 
fault of their own, and to secure Some provision against 
want as long as there is need, or until young children 
can become self-supporting. In his letter announcing 
the gift he said: "I make this first use of surplus wealth 
upon retiring from business as an acknowledgment of 
the deep debt which I owe to the workmen who have 
contributed so greatly to my success." Mr. Carnegie 



HIS BENEFACTIONS 167 

has set a splendid example, and one that is worthy of 
more general adoption by employers of labor in this 
country and in England. 

And now we turn to review Mr. Carnegie's princely 
gift of two millions to Scottish University education. 
No man has a more ardent love for his native coimtry 
than Andrew Carnegie has for Scotia's "Isle.** Like 
every Scotchman, he has his own high estimate of the 
national virtues. The greatest compliment he could 
pay the American was to describe him as a " Scotchman 
with his coat off and his sleeves rolled up." Scotch- 
men, he firmly believes, are capable of doing anything 
human power can accomplish. Whether he considers 
them the superior of the American, which is perhaps 
an impossibility, or puts them both on the same level, 
is a doubtful point. Anyhow, he is never tired of 
singing their praises, and he has said that he is more 
thankful for being a Scotchman than for any other 
circumstance. In his opinion, no nation has more to 
be proud of than that which has for its heroes such men 
as Wallace, Bruce and Bums. It is not surprising, 
therefore, that he should honor Scotland with a great 
act of munificence. His patriotic benefaction was 
decided upon after careful deliberation and consulta- 
tion with the principal educationalists in Scotland. 
The source from which Mr. Carnegie drew his inspiration 
was an article which appeared some years ago in the 



i68 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

Nineteenth Century Review, advocating free university 
education. The writer, Mr. Thomas Shaw, M. P., is 
also a native of Dunfermline, and has also made his 
own way in the world. The son of a baker, he rose by 
sheer merit to the position of Solicitor-General for 
Scotland in the last Liberal administration. This 
article attracted the attention of the Scottish-American 
millionaire, and the two Dunfermline men had many 
conversations about its main idea. After a lapse of a 
few years Mr. Carnegie has carried the principles of 
the scheme into practical effect, with an endowment 
of ;£2, 000,000. 

The preamble of the deed conveying the gift states 
that, having retired from active business, he deems it 
"to be his duty and one of his highest privileges to 
administer the wealth which has come to him as a 
trustee on behalf of others." Being fully convinced 
that one of the best means of discharging that trust 
is "by providing funds for improving and extending 
the opportunities for scientific study and research in 
the universities of Scotland, and by rendering attend- 
ance at these universities, and the enjoyment of their 
advantages, more available to the deserving and quali- 
fied youth of Scotland, to whom the payment of fees 
might act as a barrier to the enjoyment of these advan- 
tages,'* he decided to transfer to a body of trustees 
bonds of the United States Steel Corporation of the 



HIS BENEFACTIONS 169 

aggregate value of $10,000,000, bearing interest at five 
per cent, per annum, and having a currency of fifty 
years. The income to be derived from this endow- 
ment by the trustees will be therefore $500,000 per 
annum. 

The trustees appointed include some of the foremost 
public men of the day, and it is worthy of note that 
they are all connected with Scotland, either by birth 
or by adoption, or as representatives of Scottish con- 
stituencies in the British Parliament, and that they 
comprise all shades of political thought. 

The names of the trustees are the Earl of Elgin 
(chairman); the Earl of Rosebery; Lord Balfour of 
Burleigh; Lord Kelvin; Lord Reay; Lord Kinnear; 
Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, M. P.; Mr. A. J. 
Balfour, M. P.; Mr. Bryce, M. P.; Mr. John Morley, 
M. P.; Sir Robert PuUar; Sir Henry E. Roscoe; Mr. 
Haldane, M. P. ; and Mr. Thomas Shaw, M. P. The 
following are trustees ex officio: The Secretary for 
Scotland; the Lords Provost of Edinburgh, Glasgow 
and Dunfermline. The four universities are each to 
be represented by one trustee, to be chosen by the 
University Courts. The trust deed is followed by a 
constitution, which provides that the administration 
of the trust shall be conducted by an executive com- 
mittee of nine members. The first committee is con- 
stituted as follows: The Earl of Elgin (chairman), 



I70 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

Lord Balfour of Burleigh, Lord Kinnear, Sir Henry E. 
Roscoe, Mr. Thomas Shaw, the Lord Provost of 
Edinburgh, the Lord Provost of Glasgow. The two 
remaining members are to be two of the four trustees 
nominated by the University Courts, the members for 
Edinburgh and Aberdeen acting during the first two 
years and the members for Glasgow and St. Andrew 
acting during the second two years. The committee have 
full power and discretion in dealing with the income 
of the trust, and expending it in such a manner as they 
consider will best promote the interests of Scottish 
university education. 

The trust deed states that one-half of the net annual 
income is to be applied toward the improvement and 
expansion of the imiversities of Scotland in the facul- 
ties of science and medicine, also for improving and 
extending the opportunities for scientific study and 
research, and for increasing the facilities for acquiring 
a knowledge of history, economics, English literature 
and modem languages, and such other subjects, 
cognate to a technical or commercial education, as 
can be brought within the scope of the university 
curriculum by the erection of buildings, laboratories, 
classrooms, museums or libraries; the provision of 
efficient apparatus, books and equipment; the insti- 
tution and endowment of the professorships and lecture- 
ships, including post-graduate lectureships and scholar- 



HIS BENEFACTIONS 171 

ships, more especially scholarships for the purpose of 
encouraging research in any one or more of the subjects 
before named. 

If it is found necessary the future income of the trust 
may be mortgaged to further the above objects, subject 
to the consent of the majority of the trustees being 
obtained. 

The other half of the income, or such part thereof as 
in each year may be found requisite, is to be devoted 
to the payment of the whole or part of the ordinary 
class fees exacted by the universities from students 
of Scottish birth or extraction, and of sixteen years of 
age upward, or scholars who have given two years' 
attendance after the age of fourteen years at State- 
aided schools in Scotland, or at such other schools and 
institutes in Scotland as are under the inspection of the 
Scottish Educational Department. The student must 
have passed in the subject-matter of the class in which 
payment of fees is desired an examination qualifying 
for admission to the study of that subject at the 
universities with a view to graduation in any of the 
faculties. The students are to make application for the 
payment of their fees in such form as may be prescribed 
by the committee. The decision of the committee 
in all questions of qualification is to be final, and the 
fees of all applicants declared to be eligible are in each 
case to be paid by the committee as they become 



172 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

due to the factors or authorized officers of the 
universities. 

If the committee, after due inquiry, are satisfied that 
any student has shown exceptional merit at the tmi- 
versity, and may advantageously be afforded assist- 
ance beyond the payment of ordinary class fees, they 
are to have power to extend such assistance either in 
money or other privileges, upon such conditions and 
under such regulations as they may prescribe. They 
are to have power to withhold payment of fees from 
any student who is guilty of misconduct, or who fails 
within a reasonable time to pass the ordinary examina- 
tion of the universities, or any of them. 

Extra mural colleges, science schools or evening 
classes in Scotland, attendance at which is recognized 
as qualifying or assisting to qualify for graduation, 
are entitled to participate in any surplus income. The 
committee are also authorized to expend any unused 
income in establishing courses of lectures for the benefit 
of evening classes, attended by students engaged in 
industrial or professional occupation during the day, 
or in any other way they think proper in connec- 
tion with the purposes expressed in the trust deed 
and constitution. In the event of the full income not 
being expended, the balance is to be paid into a 
reserve fund. The benefits of the trust are available to 
students of both sexes. The trustees have power by a 



HIS BENEFACTIONS 173 

two-thirds majority to modify the conditions imder 
which the funds may be appHed to meet the purposes 
of the donor, as expressed in the constitution, and 
according to the changed conditions of the time. Mr. 
Carnegie signed the trust deed on June 7, 1901, from 
which date the benefits accruing from his magnificent 
gift began to operate. 

The publication of the details of the scheme attracted 
widespread attention. The inevitable faint rumblings 
of the critics were heard, but generally the scheme was 
heartily approved. A certain few, who had not grasped 
the comprehensive nature of the trust, asserted that it 
would pauperize University education and lower its 
dignity, but this result will be impossible if the stipu- 
lations contained in the trust deed are carried out. 
The scheme aims at opening the portals of University 
education to those of Scotland's sons and daughters 
who show evidences of maturing abilities and a desire 
to cultivate their gifts and extend their knowledge. 
Scotland need not trouble itself about the class of 
intellectual paupers free university education will 
produce, for they are destined to occupy the great 
positions of their land and to form the solid foundation 
of its commercial prosperity. 

Mr. Carnegie has given instructions that the self- 
respect of parents and students should be recognized. 
Provision will be made for treating the stims paid for 



174 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

fees as advances to be repaid or not at the recipient's 
choice. He believes some of the truest and best will 
one day, if ever they become rich, remember the trust 
which gave them educational assistance in the days of 
industrious poverty. The proceedings of the trustees 
will be strictly confidential, and it will therefore not be 
known whether or not a student has paid any fees. 

Speaking at the time when the scheme was made 
public, both Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman and 
Mr. John Morley made appreciative references to Mr. 
Carnegie's tmique offer. The Times, however, went so 
far as to express the hope that the non-payment of 
fees would eventually be abolished, in order that all the 
money could be devoted to ''providing world-renowned 
laboratories of science." This view found scant 
favor, especially among Mr. Carnegie's coimtrymen, 
who recognized that he had already made provision 
for research, and that the primary object of his great 
scheme was not to improve the lot of the professor, 
but to aid and stimulate the industrious student with 
slender means and high aspirations. 

As the scheme became more generally understood, 
and hasty and imperfect conception gave place to 
deliberate examination, the wisdom and foresight of the 
fotmder was conceded by even the critics, and it was 
frankly acknowledged that by his princely endow- 
ment Mr. Carnegie was giving the youth of Scotland 



HIS BENEFACTIONS 175 

the best and surest equipment to enable them success- 
fully to meet commercial and professional com- 
petition. In future years thousands of Scotchmen 
will bless the name of Carnegie and honor the man 
whose patriotic action placed within their reach the 
highest education. A generation hence the foremost 
men in Britain will bear grateful testimony to Mr. 
Carnegie as the benefactor who made it possible for 
them to lay the foundation of a successful career by 
assisting them to obtain a thorough education. 

Following closely the annotmcement of the details of 
the great gift to the Scottish universities came the 
nmior of a similar gift to the people of the United 
States. Washington, the centre of government of the 
Republic of which Andrew Carnegie is so loyal and 
eminent a citizen, is the seat of the Carnegie Institution. 
This great gift of $10,000,000 is parallel in many ways 
with the gift to the Scottish universities, as will be 
seen by the informal plan of the Carnegie Institution, 
prepared by Dr. Daniel C. Oilman. 

Among its aims are these : 

To increase the efficiency of the universities and 
other institutions of learning throughout the coimtry, 
by seeking to utilize and add to their existing facilities, 
and to aid teachers in the various institutions for 
experimental and other work in these institutions as 
far as practicable. 



176 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

To discover the invaluable and exceptional man in 
every department of study, whenever and wherever 
found, inside or outside of the schools, and enable him 
by financial aid to make the work for which he seems 
specially designed his life-work. 

To promote original research, paying great attention 
thereto, as being one of the chief purposes of this 
institution. 

To increase facilities for higher education. 

To make more useful, to such students as may find 
Washington the best point for their special studies, the 
museums, libraries, laboratories, observatory, meteoro- 
logical, piscicultural and forestry schools, and kindred 
institutions of the several departments of the govern- 
ment. 

To insure the prompt publication and distribution of 
the results of scientific investigation, a field considered 
to be highly important. 

These and kindred objects are to be attained by the 
employment of able teachers in the various institutions 
in Washington, or at other points, and by enabling men 
fitted for special work to devote themselves to it, 
through salaried fellowships or scholarships, or through 
salaries carrying pensions in old age, or through aid 
in other forms to such men as continue their special 
work at seats of learning, or who may be discovered 
outside the schools. 



HIS BENEFACTIONS 177 

The form of organization is very simple. Under the 
general law of the District of Columbia six persons — 
namely, Messrs. John Hay, Edward D. White, John S. 
Billings, Charles D. Walcott, Carroll D. Wright and 
Daniel C. Oilman — formed an incorporation at Mr. 
Carnegie's request, and subsequently, on his nomina- 
tion, selected twenty-seven persons to be the trustees, 
namely : the President of the United States, the 
President of the United States Senate, the Speaker of 
the House of Representatives, the Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution, the President of the National 
Academy of Sciences, ex ofjiciis; Orover Cleveland, 
John S. Billings, William N. Frey, Lyman J. Oage, 
Daniel C. Oilman, John Hay, Abram S. Hewitt, Henry 
L. Higginson, Henry Hitchcock, Charles L. Hutchinson, 
William Lindsay, Seth Low, Wayne MacVeagh, D. O. 
Mills, S. Weir Mitchell, W. W. Morrow, Elihu Root, 
John C. Spooner, Andrew D. White, Edward D. White, 
Charles D. Walcott and Carroll D. Wright. 

Mr. Carnegie's gift made possible, but much more 
comprehensively, a great educational scheme that 
originated in the mind of Oeorge Washington and has 
been a dream of educators ever since. 

Mr. Carnegie's chief aims in the distribution of his 
wealth, so far, have been to assist the spread of knowl- 
edge, to encourage self-help and industrious ambition, 
and to implant noble ideals of citizenship and brother- 



178 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

hood in the minds of the rising generatior^ Mr. 
Gladstone spoke of his methods of bestowal as being 
worthy of high praise, and said that their effect would 
be to ''teach high thought and amiable words, and 
courtliness, and the desire of fame, and love of truth, 
and all that makes a man." This eulogy has already 
been well earned by its recipient. 



The Pen of a Ready Writer 



L 



CHAPTER XI 

THE PEN OF A READY WRITER 

ITERARY pursuits have always been to Andrew 



Carnegie a real source of pleasur^ He has 



allowed his natural gifts in this direction to have full 
scope, and has acquired a worthy reputation as a strong 
and incisive writer, with a vivid, attractive style and a 
mastery of powerful illustration and apt quotation. 

Notwithstanding the heavy tax upon his time and 
energies involved in the building up of the gigantic con- 
cern which bears his name, he has found leisure to 
indulge in literary work. The journalistic craving has 
always been strong within him, and the writing of 
articles, chiefly on commercial, political and social 
questions, for the principal reviews of both countries, 
has been to him a welcome recreation from the storm 
and stress of business. We have already referred to 
the most important of his articles, which earned him 
his international notoriety as a writer and social 
refquner. 

yin addition to a large number of lengthy and valu- 
able magazine articles, he has written four books^ 
His first publication, entitled "Round the World,'* 
which appeared in 1879, contained a picturesque 

181 



i82 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

account of a trip across the Pacific to Japan, China and 
India, and home again via the Suez Canal and Europe. 
There is much in this book that shows the characteris- 
tics of the man, his keen estimate of German nature, 
his interest in and understanding of social and political 
economics. Many of Mr. Carnegie's descriptions are 
as graphic as they are unconventional. He has the 
following to say about the first sight of Japan and the 
landing : 

"Land ahoy ! The islands of Japan are in sight, and 
the entrance to the bay is reached at 4 p. m. The sail 
up this bay is never to be forgotten. The sim set as we 
entered, and then came such a sky as Italy cannot rival. 
I have seen it pictured as deluging Egypt with its 
glory, but this we have yet to see. Fusiyama itself 
shone forth under its rays, its very summit clear, more 
than 14,000 feet above us. The clouds in large masses 
lay east and west of the peak, but cowering far below, 
as if not one speck dared to rise to its crown. It stood 
alone in solitary granduer, by far the most impressive 
mountain I have yet seen ; for mountains, as a rule, are 
disappointing, the height being generally attained by 
gradations. It is only to Fusiyama, and such as it, that 
rise alone in one unbroken pyramid, that one can apply 
Schiller's grand line, 

"Ye are the things which tower." 
Fusiyama towers beyond any crag or peak I know of. 



THE PEN OF A READY WRITER 183 

and I do not wonder that in early days the Japanese 
made the home of their gods upon its crest. 

"It was nine o'clock when the anchor dropped, and in 
a few minutes after small boats crowded alongside to 
take us ashore. Until you are rowed in a sampan in 
style, never flatter yourself you have known the 
grotesque in the way of transportation. Fancy a large, 
wide canoe, with a small cabin in the stem, the deck in 
front lower than the sides, and on this four creatures, 
resembling nothing on earth so much as the demons in 
the Black Crook, minus most of the covering. They 
stand two on each side, but not in a line, and each works 
a long oar scull-fashion, accompanying each stroke with 
shouts such as we have never heard before ; the last one 
steers as well as sculls with his oar, and thus we go, 
propelled by these yelHng devils, who apparently work 
themselves into a state of fearful excitement." 

This paragraph, written as the author is about to 
leave the land of the Rising Sun, contains a prophecy 
that has long been realized : 

"That Japan will succeed in her effort to establish a 
central government under something like our ideas of 
freedom and law, and that she has such resources as will 
enable her to maintain it and educate her people I am 
glad to be able to say I believe ; but much remains to 
be done requiring in the race the exercise of solid quali- 
ties, the possession of which I find some Europeans 



i84 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

disposed to deny them. They have traveled, perhaps, 
quite fast enough, and I look for a temporary triumph 
of the more conservative party. But the seed is sown, 
and Japan will move, upon the whole, in the direction 
of progress.' 

Referring to the conditions in Ceylon, Mr. Carnegie 
has to say : 

"I am amused at the ignorance of the average 
Englishman or American upon Eastern affairs. He is 
always amazed when I tell him that so far as repre- 
sentative institutions are concerned, there is not a 
village in India which is not further advanced in this 
department of politics than any rural constituency in 
Britain. The American county, village, district and 
township system is, of course, more perfect than any 
other with which I am acquainted, but the English is 
really about the most backward. The experiment in 
Ceylon of restoring the native system has been an 
unequivocal success, even beyond the expectations of 
its warmest advocates, and in addition to the advan- 
tages flowing from the native courts, it is found that 
the village committees are beginning to repair and 
restore the ancient tanks and other irrigation works, 
which, under the curse of centralized and foreign 
authority, had been allowed to fall into disuse." 

The following passage is an interesting parallel to 
that quoting the wages of workingmen in England. 



THE PEN OF A READY WRITER 185 

The "land'* referred to is India, and the place 
Benares. 

"We are in the land of the cheapest labor in the 
world. It is doubtful if men can be found anywhere 
else to do a day's work for as little as they are paid 
in India. Railway laborers and coolies of all kinds re- 
ceive only four rupees per month, and find themselves ; 
these are worth just now forty cents each, or say $1.60 
(6s. 6d.) in gold for a month's service. Upon this a 
man has to exist. Is it any wonder that the masses 
are constantly upon the verge of starvation ? Women 
earn much less, and of course every member of a 
family has to work and earn something. The common 
food is a pulse called gran ; the better class indulge 
in a pea called daahl. Anything beyond a vegetable 
diet is not dreamed of.'* 

Mr. Carnegie's anti-imperialism crops out strongly in 
the following, but one cannot help thinking what a 
splendid thing England is doing in "giving to these 
millions the blessings of order" — ^well worth the cost. 

"What do I think of India? is asked me every day; 
but I feel that one accustomed to the exceptional 
fertility and advantages of America — a land so wonder- 
fully endowed that it seems to me more and more the 
special favorite of fortune — is very apt to underrate 
India. We saw it after two years of bad harvests and 
a third most unpromising one coming on. Judged 



i86 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

from what I saw, I can only say that I, as a lover of 
England, find it impossible to repress the wish that 
springs up at every turn, Would she were safely and 
honorably out of it ? Retiring now is out of the ques- 
tion; she has abolished the native system in large dis- 
tricts, and must perforce continue the glorious task of 
giving to these millions the blessings of order." 

This was followed in 1882 by "Our Coaching Trip," 
which is an interesting record of a drive on a coach and 
four through England and Scotland from Brighton to 
Inverness. These two books were intended for private 
circulation only, but they aroused so much interest 
that after giving away fifteen hundred copies of the 
latter work and a large number of the former a second 
issue of both was found necessary. "Our Coaching 
Trip" was re-entitled "An American Four-in-Hand in 
Britain." Mr. Carnegie rambles on in a delightful 
way, digressing often, following any byway that might 
strike his fancy, stating facts, quoting appropriately at 
timeiB. 

^^ven in this lighter literature Mr. Carnegie's strong 
likes and dislikes show clearly; his abhorrence of war, 
his dislike for monarchical institutions, his ipion- 
sectarianism^— all these characteristics crop out any- 
where and everywhere../ 

A few quotations, follow. Anent a visit to Parlia- 
ment he says : s^a\ 



THE PEN OF A READY WRITER 187 

"The daily routine is uninteresting, and one sees 
how rapidly all houses of legislation are losing their 
hold upon public attention. A debate upon the pro- 
priety of allowing Manchester to dispose of her sewage 
to please herself, or of permitting Dunfermline to bring 
in a supply of water, seems such a waste of time. The 
Imperial Parliament of Great Britain is much in want 
of something to do when it condescends to occupy its 
time with trifling questions which the community 
interested can best settle; but even in matters of 
national importance debates are no longer what they 
were. The questions have already been threshed out 
in the Reviews — ^those coming forums of discussion — 
and all that can be said is already said by writers upon 
both sides of the question who know its bearings much 
better than the leaders of party." 

The author's love for his adopted country rings out 
in the following : 

"Do you know why the American worships the starry 
banner with a more intense passion than even the 
Briton does his flag ? I will tell you. It is because it 
is not the flag of a government which discriminates 
between her children, decreeing privilege to one and 
denying it to another, but the flag of the people which 
gives the same rights to all. The British flag was bom 
too soon to be close to the masses. It came before 
their time, when they had little or no power. They 



i88 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

were not consulted about it. Some conclave made it, 
as a pope is made, and handed it down to the nation. 
But the American flag bears in every fiber the warrant, 
'We the People in Congress assembled.' It is their 
own child, and how supremely it is beloved !" 

And again in reference to Garfield : 

''Garfield's life was not in vain. It tells it own story 
— ^this poor boy toiling upward to the proudest position 
on earth, the elected of fifty millions of freemen; a 
position compared with which that of king or kaiser 
is as nothing. Let other nations ask themselves where 
are our Lincolns and Garfields? Ah, they grow not 
except where all men are bom equal ! The cold shade 
of aristocracy nips them in the bud." 

He painted many pictures of English rural life and 
showed a surprising appreciation of Nature. Here is 
an illustration : 

*The approach to Guildford gives us our first real 
perfect English lane — so narrow and so bound in by 
towering hedgerows worthy the name. Had we met 
a vehicle at some of the prettiest turns there would 
have been trouble, for, although the lane is not quite as 
narrow as the pathway of the auld brig, where two 
wheelbarrows trembled as they met, yet a four-in-hand 
upon an English lane requires a clear tack. Vegeta- 
tion near Guildford is luxiiriant enough to meet our 
expectations of England. It was at the White Lion 



THE PEN OF A READY WRITER 189 

we halted, and here came oiir first experience of quar- 
ters for the night. The first dinner en route was a 
decided success in oxir fine sitting-room, the American 
flags, brought into requisition for the first time to 
decorate the mantel, bringing to all sweet memories of 
home. During our stroll to-day we stopped at a small 
village inn before which pretty roses grew, hanging in 
clusters upon its sides. It was a very small and himible 
inn indeed, the tile floors sanded, and the fumitiire of 
the tap-room only plain wood — ^there were no chairs, 
only benches around the table where the hinds sit at 
night, drinking home-brewed beer, smoking their clay 
pipes, and discussing not the political affairs of the 
nation, but the affairs of their little world, bounded by 
the hall at one end of the estate and the parsonage at 
the other." 

Also this bit of description : 

"The rugs were laid under a chestnut tree, and our 
first picnic luncheon spread on the buttercups and 
daisies. Swallows skimmed the water, bees hummed 
above us — ^but stop ! what's that, and where ? Otir 
first skylark singing at heaven's gate ? All who heard 
this never-to-be-forgotten song for the first time were 
up and on their feet in an instant ; but the tiny songster 
which was then filling the azure vault with music was 
nowhere to be seen. It's worth an Atlantic voyage 
to hear a skylark for the first time. Even luncheon 



I90 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

was neglected awhile, hungry as we were, that we might 
if possible catch a glimpse of the warbler. The flood 
of song poured forth as we stood rapt awaiting the 
descent of the messenger from heaven. At last a small 
black speck came into sight. He is so little to see — so 
great to hear ? 

Interested in workmen the world over, Mr. Carnegie 
wormed the following from a carpenter whom he 
happened to meet : 

" He was a rough carpenter and his wages were six- 
teen shillings per week ($4). A laborer gets eleven 
shillings (not $2.75), but some 'good masters' pay 
thirteen to fourteen shillings ($3.25 to $3.50) and give 
their men four or five poimds of beef at Christmas. 
Food is bacon and tea, which are cheap, but no beef. 
Men's wages have not advanced much for many years 
(I should think not !), but women's have. An ordinary 
woman for field work can get one shilling per day 
(twenty-four cents) ; a short time ago ninepence 
(eighteen cents) was the highest amount paid. Is it not 
cheering to find poor women getting an advance ? But 
think what their condition still is, when one shilling 
per day is considered good pay? I asked whether 
employers did not board the workers in addition to 
paying these wages, but he assured me they did not. 
This is Southern England and these are agricultural 
laborers, but the wages seem distressingly low even 



THE PEN OF A READY WRITER 191 

as compared with British wages in general. The new 
system of education and the coming extension of the 
stiff rage to the cotmties will soon work a change among 
these poor people. They will not rest content crowding 
each other down thus to a pittance when they can 
read and write and vote. Thank fortune for this." 

The following good advice Mr. Carnegie has followed 
himself. It is rather characteristic of the man that his 
preaching and his practice coincide : 

"We strolled over and watched the cricketers. It 
all depends upon how you look at a thing. So many 
able-bodied perspiring men knocking about a little 
ball on a warm simimer's day, that is one way; so many 
men relieved from anxious care and laying the founda- 
tions for long years of robust health by invigorating 
exercise in the open air, that is the other view of the 
question. The ancients did not count against our 
little time of life the days spent in the chase; neither 
need we charge those spent in cricket ; and as for our 
sport, coaching, for every day so spent we decided that 
it and another might be safely credited. He was a 
very wise prime minister who said he had often found 
important duties for which he had not time ; one duty, 
however, he had always made time for, his daily after- 
noon ride on horseback. Your always busy man accom- 
plishes little; the great doer is he who has plenty of 
leisure. The man at the helm turns the wheel now and 



192 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

then, and so easily, too, touching an electric bell ; it's 
the stoker down below who is pitching into it with his 
coat off. And look at Captain McMicken promenading 
the deck in his uniform and a face like a full moon ; 
quite at his ease and ready for a story. And there is 
Johnnie Watson, chief engineer, who rules over the 
throbbing heart of the ship; he is standing there 
prepared for a crack. Moral: Don't worry yourself 
over work, hold yourself in reserve, and sure as fate 
' it will all come right in the wash. * '* 

"A beautiful tribute to the mother land is found 
in the names of towns and cities in the new. As even on 
the crowded, tiny Mayflower the stem Puritan found 
room to bring and nurse with tender care the daisy of 
his native land, so the citizen, driven from the dear old 
home, ever sighs, ' England, with all thy faults I love 
thee still.' Surely, why not? Her faults are as one, 
her virtues as a thousand. And having a new home to 
christen, with swelling heart and tearful eye, and a love 
for the native land which knows no end and never can 
know end while breath clings to the body, he conjures 
up the object of his fondest love and calls his new home 
Boston, York, Brighton, Hartford, Stratford, Lynn, 
Liverpool, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dtirham, Perth, 
Aberdeen, Dundee, Norwich, Cambridge, Oxford, 
Canterbury, Rochester, London, Newcastle, Man- 
chester, Birmingham, Middleboro', Chester, Coventry, 



THE PEN OF A READY WRITER 193 

Plymouth,or other dear name of the place where in life's 
young days he had danced o'er the sunny braes, heard 
the lark sing in the heavens, and the mavis pour forth 
its glad song from the hedgerow. The Briton travels 
through the RepubHc living in a succession of hotels : 
Victorias, Clarendons, Windsors, Westminsters, Albe- 
marles. He might think himself at home again except 
that the superior advantages of the new hostelries 
serve to remind him at every turn that things are not 
as he has been accustomed to. So that our household 
gods are not only the same in the new as in the old land, 
but we call them by the same names and love them. 
And what American worthy of the name but shall 
reverence the home of his fathers and wish it god- 
speed ? When the people reign in the old home as they 
do in the new, the two nations will become one people, 
and the bonds which unite them the world combined 
shall not break asunder. The republican on this side 
of the Atlantic will extend his hand to his fellow upon 
the other, and resolve that no difference between them 
shall ever lead to war. All parties in the Republic 
j,lready stand pledged to the doctrine of peaceful 
arbitration. The reign of the masses is the road to 
imiversal peace. Thrones and royal families, and the 
influences necessarily surrounding jealous dynasties, 
make for war; the influences surrounding Democracy 
make for peace." 



194 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

Andrew Carnegie the Scotchman describes himself 
when the border line was crossed and the coach entered 
Scotland : 

" It was on Saturday, July i6th, that we went over 
the border. The bridge across the boundary line was 
soon reached. When midway over, a halt was called 
and vent given to our enthusiasm. With three cheers 
for the land of the heather, shouts of 'Scotland for- 
ever,' and the waving of hats and handkerchiefs, we 
dashed across the border. O Scotland, my own, my 
native land, your exiled son returns with love for you 
as ardent as ever warmed the heart of man for his 
country. It's a God's mercy I was bom a Scotchman, 
for I do not see how I could ever have been contented 
to be anything else. The little plucky dour deevil, set 
in her own ways and getting them, too, level-headed 
and shrewd, with an eye to the main chance always, and 
yet so lovingly weak, so fond, so led away by song or 
story, so easily touched to fine issues, so leal, so true ! 
Ah, you suit me, Scotia, and proud am I that I am your 
son." 

Altogether "An American Four-in-Hand in Britain" 
is an extremely vivacious book, sparkling with humor 
and gems of scenic description and chatty reminis- 
cences. 

In 1886 was published his best-known work, ** Trium- 
phant Democracy." The dedication of the book reads 



THE PEN OF A READY WRITER 195 

as follows — "To the beloved Republic, tinder whose 
equal laws I am made the peer of any man, although 
denied political equality by my native land, I dedicate 
this book, with an intensity of gratitude and admiration 
which the native-bom citizen can neither feel nor 
understand." This, together with the first paragraph, 
indicates the trend of the book — ''The old nations 
creep on at a snail's pace ; the Republic thunders past 
with the rush of an express. The United States, the 
growth of a single century, has already reached the 
foremost rank among nations, and is destined soon to 
outdistance all others in the race. In population, in 
wealth, in annual savings, and in public credit; in 
freedom from debt, in agriculture and in manufactures 
America already leads the civilized world." At the 
time he wrote the book Mr. Carnegie was at the height 
of his political enthusiasm, and his caustic attacks on 
royalty and the aristocracy, together with the real 
merit of the volume in other respects, attracted a great 
deal of attention and criticism and aroused not a little 
righteous indignation. 

With an enthusiasm for his adopted country that is 
splendid, and from the point of view of the Ameri- 
canized Briton, he proceeds to tell the Republic's 
greatness. 

"The American is tolerant. Politics do not divide 
people. Once in four years he warms up and takes 



196 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

sides, opposing hosts confront each other, and a stranger 
would naturally think that only violence could result 
whichever side won. The morning after election his 
arm is upon his opponent's shoulder and they are 
chaffing each other. All becomes as calm as a Summer 
sea. He fights ''rebels" for four years, and as soon 
as they lay down their arms invites them to his ban- 
quets." 

As to the question of the maintenance of the purely 
American race he has this to say : 

*'It is not unusual to find in the writings of Euro- 
peans statements to the effect that the American race 
is unable to maintain itself without the constant influx 
of foreign immigration. A position more directly 
opposed to the facts could scarcely be taken. Let us 
see. The total mmiber of persons of foreign birth 
in the United States in 1890 was approximately 
9,250,000. The total number of persons of native 
birth, but whose parents were of foreign birth, in 
1890 was approximately 10,400,000. Now, since immi- 
gration on a large scale commenced at a compara- 
tively recent date, it is not probable that there is any 
considerable number of persons of foreign parentage 
in the second generation. Therefore, the sum of these 
19,650,000, or, in round ntimbers, 20,000,000, is prob- 
ably a close approximation to the number of persons 
in the country of foreign birth or of foreign parentage. 



THE PEN OF A READY WRITER 197 

The number of whites in the United States in 1890 
was, in round numbers, 55,000,000. Subtracting from 
this the above 20,000,000, leaves as the number of 
whites of native abstraction in the United States in 
1890, 35,000,000. In 1840 the corresponding nimiber 
was approximately 14,000,000, showing that in fifty 
years the native population, tmaided by immigration, 
has much more than doubled — indeed, has increased 
no less than one hundred and fifty per cent. It does 
not look as if the 'American race' is not able to main- 
tain itself." 

For even the much maligned immigrant to the United 
States he has a good word : 

*'But the value of these peaceful invaders does not 
consist solely in their numbers or in the wealth which 
they bring. To estimate them aright we must take 
into consideration their superior character. As the 
people who laid the foundation of the American 
Republic were extremists, fanatics, if you will — men of 
advanced views intellectually, morally and politically; 
men whom Europe had rejected as dangerous — so the 
emigrants to-day are men who leave their native land 
from dissatisfaction with their surroundings, and who 
seek here, under new conditions, the opportunity for 
development denied them at home. The old and 
destitute, the idle and the contented, do not brave the 
waves of the stormy Atlantic, but sit hopelessly at home 



198 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

perhaps bewailing their hard fate, or, what is still more 
sad to see, aimlessly contented with it. The emigrant 
is the capable, energetic, ambitious, discontented man 
— ^who, longing to breathe the air of equality, resolves 
to tear himself away from the old home with its associa- 
tions, to found in hospitable America a new home imder 
equal and just laws, which insure to him, and — ^what 
counts with him and his wife far more — insure to their 
children the full measure of citizenship, making them 
free men in a free State, possessed of every right and 
privilege." 

Mr. Carnegie, a thorough student of economics and 
prone to look well before he leaps, has no patience with 
snapshot legislation. 

"These grand, immutable, all-wise laws of natural 
forces, how perfectly they work if human legislators 
would only let them alone ! But no, they must be 
tinkering. One day they would protect the balance of 
power in Europe by keeping weak, small areas apart 
and independent — ^an impossible task, for petty States 
must merge into the greater: political is as certain as 
physical gravitation ; the next day it is silver in America 
which our sage rulers would make of greater intrinsic 
value. So our governors, all over the world, are at 
Sisyphus 's work — ever rolling the stone uphill to see 
it roll back into its proper bed at the bottom." 

Though Mr. Carnegie's enthusiasm for America and 



THE PEN OF A READY WRITER 199 

her institutions is one of his strongest feelings, he has a 
love for his mother country that crops out everywhere 
and tinges all his writings. 

A hard worker himself, Mr. Carnegie thoroughly 
believes in the dignity of labor. The following para- 
graph from the chapter in "Triumphant Democracy" 
on "Occupations" shows the importance he attaches 
to the American's capacity for work : 

"There is still little realized wealth and only a trace 
of a leisure class. The climate stimulates to exertion. 
The opinion is very generally held that every citizen 
owes the Republic a Hfe of usefulness. Carlyle says: 
'Happy is the man who has found his work.' Very 
few Americans, indeed, are permitted to trace their 
unhappiness, if unhappiness there be, to a failure in this 
direction. Every man appears to have found his 
work and to be doing it with a will. The American 
likes work. He has not yet learned to play the idler 
gracefully. Even when old age appears he seems to 
find it more difficult than the man of any other race 
toretire from active and engrossing pursuits." 
.^With Mr. Carnegie practice and preaching go hand 
in hand to a remarkable degree. The following para- 
graph from "Triumphant Democracy" matches the 
ten-million gifts for education in America and Scotland: 

"The moral to be drawn from America by every 
nation is this : 'Seek ye first the education of the people, 



200 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

and all other political blessings will be added unto you.' 
The quarrels of party, the game of politics, this or that 
measure of reform, are but surface affairs of little 
moment . The education of the people is the real under- 
lying work for earnest men who would best serve their 
country y' In this, the most creditable work of all, it 
cannot be denied that the Republic occupies the first 
place/* 

The two following quotations contain the gist of 
Andrew Carnegie's feeling about churches and religious 
services : 

''One hundred and fifty differing sects are found in 
the United States, each fortunately certain that it has 
in its bosom the truth ; and each has part of the truth. 
All truth is not to be gathered in one or all the sects. 
It is too vast, too all-pervading, to be cabined, cribbed, 
confined. As well might one country claim a monopoly 
of all the air of heaven, as one sect all the truth of 
heaven. Each may have some, but none can have all. 

** Without church-rate or tithe, without State endow- 
ment or State supervision, religion in America has 
spontaneously acquired a strength which no political 
support could have given. It is a living force entering 
into the lives of the people, and drawing them closer 
together in unity of feeling, and working silently and 
without sign of friction which in the mother country 
results from a union with the State, which, as we have 



THE PEN OF A READY WRITER 201 

seen, tends strongly to keep the people divided one 
from another. The power of the church in America 
must not be sought, as Burke said of an ideal aristoc- 
racy, *in rotten parchments, under dripping and perish- 
ing walls, but in full vigor, and acting with vital energy 
and power, in the character of the leading men and 
natural interests of the country/ Even if judged by 
the accommodations provided, and the sums spent 
upon church organizations, Democracy can safely 
claim that of all the divisions of English-speaking 
people, it has produced the most religious community 
yet known." 

Commerce is a word spelled large in Mr. Carnegie's 
vocabulary — commercial success is much more to be 
honored than military glory — ^the man who achieves 
great things industrially is "greater than he who taketh 
a city" by force of arms. 

**The United States of America probably furnish the 
jDnly example in the world's history of a community 
., purely industrial in origin and development. Every 
other nation seems to have passed through the military 
stage. In Europe and in Asia, in ancient times as 
well as in modern, social development has been mainly 
the result of war. Nearly every modern dynasty in 
Europe has been established by conquest, and every 
nation there has acquired and held its territory by 
force of arms. Men have been as wild beasts slaughter- 



202 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

ing each other at the command of the small privileged 
classes. The colonies of America, on the other hand, 
were established upon a peaceful basis, and the land 
chiefly obtained by purchase or agreement, and not 
by conquest. Devoted to industry, the American 
people have never taken up the sword except in self- 
defense or in defense of their institutions." 

"Triumphant Democracy" reached a circulation of 
40,000 copies in the first two years, and it acquired an 
added notoriety through the efforts of some superla- 
tively loyal persons to have it suppressed. 

Mr. Carnegie has published a dozen of his articles 
imder the general title of ''The Gospel of Wealth," and 
several of them have a direct bearing on the chief 
chapter. One of the most striking arguments in the 
"Gospel" is his contention that poverty is a positive 
help in the formation of character and the winning 
of success. The following passage is quoted from 
the above-mentioned book from "The Advantages of 
Poverty": 

^ "Hereditary wealth and position tend to rob father 
and mother of their children and the children of father 
and mother. It cannot be long ere their disadvantages 
are felt more and more and the advantages of plain and 
simple living more clearly seen. 

**Poor boys reared thus directly by their parents 
possess such advantages over those watched and 



THE PEN OF A READY WRITER 203 

taught by hired strangers, and exposed to the tempta- 
tions of wealth and position, that it is not surprising 
they become the leaders in every branch of human 
action. They appear upon the stage, athletes trained 
for the contest, with sinews braced, indomitable wills, 
resolved to do or die. Such boys always have marched, 
and always will march, straight to the front and lead 
the world ; they are the epoch-makers. Let one select 
the three or four foremost names, the supremely great 
in every field of human triumph, and note how small 
is the contribution of hereditary rank and wealth to 
the short list of the immortals who have lifted and 
advanced the race. It will, I think, be seen that the 
possession of these is almost fatal to greatness and 
goodness, and that the greatest and the best of our 
race have necessarily been nurtured in the bracing 
school of poverty — ^the only school capable of pro- 
ducing the supremely great, the genius." 
/ Mr. Carnegie's ideas about trusts aroused a great 
deal of interest. He contends in general that trusts 
are inevitable and many of them distinctly beneficial to 
the public. The following quotation is from ''Popular 
Illusions About Trusts" : 

"If there be in human history one truth clearer and 
more indisputable than another, it is that the cheapen- 
ing of articles, whether of luxury or of necessity or of 
those classed as artistic, insures their more general 



204 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

distribution, and is one of the most potent factors in 
refining and lifting a people and in adding to its happi- 
ness. In no period of human activity has this great 
agency been so potent or so widespread as in oiir own. 
Now, the cheapening of all these good things, whether 
it be the metals, in textiles or in food, or especially 
in books and prints, is rendered possible only through 
the operation of the law, which may be stated thus: 
cheapness is in proportion to the scale of production. 
To make ten tons of steel a day would cost many times 
as much per ton as to make one htmdred tons ; to make 
one hundred tons would cost double as much per ton 
as a thousand ; and to make one thousand tons per day 
would cost greatly more than to make ten thousand 
tons. Thus, the larger the scale of operation the 
cheaper the product. The huge steamship of twenty 
thousand tons' burden ca;rries its ton of freight at less 
cost, it is stated, than the first steamships carried 
a pound. It is, fortunately, impossible for man to 
impede, much less to change, this great and beneficent 
law, from which flow most of his comforts and luxuries, 
and also most of the best and most improving forces 
in his life. 

" In an age noted for its inventions we see the same 
law running through these. Inventions facilitate big 
operations, and in most instances, required to be 
worked upon a great scale. Indeed, as a rule, the great 



THE PEN OF A READY WRITER 205 

invention which is beneficent in its operation would be 
useless unless operated to supply a thousand people 
where ten were supplied before. Every agency in our 
day labors to scatter the good things of life, both for 
mind and body, among the toiling millions. Every- 
where we look we see the inexorable law ever produc- 
ing bigger and bigger things. One of the most notable 
illustrations of this is seen in the railway freight car. 
When the writer entered the service of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad from seven to eight tons were carried 
upon eight wheels ; to-day they carry fifty tons. The 
locomotive has quadrupled in power. The steamship 
to-day is ten times bigger, the blast-furnace has seven 
times more capacity, and the tendency everywhere 
is still to increase. The contrast between the hand 
printing press of old and the elaborate newspaper 
printing machine of to-day is even more marked. '* 

Mr. Carnegie has to say of the relations of employer 
and employee as follows : 

" It is the chairman, situated hundreds of miles away 
from his men, who only pays a flying visit to the works 
and perhaps finds time to walk through the mill or 
mine once or twice a year, that is chiefly responsible 
for the disputes which break out at intervals. I have 
noted that the manager who confers oftenest with a 
committee of his leading men has the least trouble 
with his workmen. Although it may be impracticable 



2o6 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

for the presidents of these large corporations to know 
the workingmen personally, the manager at the mills, 
having a committee of his best men to present their 
suggestions and wishes from time to time, can do much 
to maintain and strengthen amicable relations, if not 
interfered with from headquarters. I, therefore, 
recognize in trades unions, or better still, in the 
organizations of the men in each establishment, who 
select representatives to speak for them, a means, not 
of further embittering the relations between employer 
and employed, but of improving them. " 

Mr. Carnegie's latest book,"The Empire of Business," 
may be called a book of inspiration ; it has a distinctly 
optimistic tone, and almost every chapter expresses 
the hopeful, cheerful disposition which is character- 
istic of its author. In this latest book Mr. Carnegie's 
well-known opinions about the uses of wealth, the 
advantages of poverty and the relations of capital and 
labor are clearly expressed. Beside these subjects 
Mr. Carnegie writes interestingly about such things 
as steel manufacture, oil and gas wells, and railroads, 
about which he is a recognized authority. 

In "The A B C of Money" Mr. Carnegie has given 
a remarkably clear idea of the whole money question. 
The following gives the reason for money in a nutshell. 

"To get at the root of the subject you must know, 
first, why money exists; secondly, what money really 



THE PEN OF A READY WRITER 207 

is. Let me try to tell you, taking a new district of our 
own modem country to illustrate how 'money* comes. 
In times past, when the people only tilled the soil, and 
commerce and manufactures had not developed, men 
had few wants, and so they got along without 'money* 
by exchanging the articles themselves when they 
needed something which they had not. The farmer 
who wanted a pair of shoes gave so many bushels of 
com for them, and his wife bought her stm-bonnet by 
giving so many bushels of potatoes ; thus all sales and 
purchases were made by exchanging articles — ^by 
barter. 

"As population grew and wants extended, this plan 
became very inconvenient. One man in the district 
then started a general store and kept on hand a great 
many of the things which were most wanted, and took 
for these any of the articles which the farmer had to 
give in exchange. This was a great step in advance, 
for the farmer who wanted half a dozen different things 
when he went to the village had then no longer to 
search for half a dozen different people who wanted 
one or more of the things he had to offer in exchange. 
He could now go directly to one man, the storekeeper, 
and for any of his agricultural products he could get 
most of the articles he desired. It did not matter to 
the storekeeper whether he gave the farmer tea or 
coffee, blankets or a hayrake; nor did it matter what 



2o8 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

articles he took from the farmer, wheat or com or 
potatoes, so he could send them away to the city and 
get other articles for them which he wanted. The 
farmer could even pay the wages of his hired men by 
giving them orders for articles upon the store. No 
dollars appear here yet, you see; all is still barter — 
exchange of articles; very inconvenient and very 
costly, because the agricultural articles given in ex- 
change had to be hauled about and were always 
changing their value." 

The author stands for a gold standard, of course. He 
closes his article on the subject of money with the 
following earnest summing up : 

"I have written in vain if this paper does not do 
something to explain why this is so, and to impel the 
people to let their representatives in Congress clearly 
understand that, come what may, the stamp of the 
republic must be made true, the money of the Ameri- 
can people kept the highest and stirest in value of all 
money in the world, above all doubt or suspicion, its 
standard in the future, as in the past, not fluctuating 
silver, but unchanging gold." 

Andrew Carnegie has been called a "slave driver," 
and it has been said that his workmen have been driven 
unwarrantably. The facts in the case disprove this, 
and his writings show that he looked at things from 
the workman's point of view as well as that of the 



THE PEN OF A READY WRITER 209 

employer. The following quotations from two chap- 
ters of "The Empire of Business" show his attitude 
toward the question of capital and labor : 

*Tt is very unfortunate that the irresistible tend- 
ency of our age, which draws manufacturing into 
immense establishments, requiring the work of thou- 
sands of men, renders it impossible for employers 
who reside near to obtain that intimate acquaintance 
with employes which, under the old system of manu- 
facturing in very small establishments, made the re- 
lation of master and man more pleasing to both. 

" When articles were manufactured in small shops by 
employers who required only the assistance of a few 
men and apprentices, the employer had opportunities 
to know every one, to become well acquainted with 
each, and to know his merits both as a man and as a 
workman ; and on the other hand the workman, being 
brought into closer contact with his employer, in- 
evitably knew more of his business, of his cares and 
troubles, of his efforts to succeed, and more important 
than all, they came to know something of the charac- 
teristics of the man himself. All this is changed. 

" Thus the employes become more like htmian ma- 
chines, as it were, to the employer, and the employer 
becomes almost a myth to his men. From every 
point of view this is a most regrettable result, yet it is 
one for which I see no remedy. The free play of 



fio ANDREW CARNEGIE 

economic laws is forcing the manufacture of all articles 
of general consumption more and more into the hands 
of a few enormous concerns, that their cost to the con- 
sumer may be less." 

"It being therefore impossible for the employers of 
thousands to become acquainted with their men, if we 
are not to lose all feeling of mutuality between us, the 
employer must seek their acquaintance through other 
forms, to express his care for the well-being of those 
upon whose labor he depends for success, by devoting 
part of his earnings for institutions like this library, 
and for the accommodation of their organizations, and 
I hope in return that the employes are to show by the 
use which they make of such benefactions that they in 
turn respond to this sentiment upon the part of em- 
ployers wherever it may be found. 

"By such means as these we may hope to maintain 
to some extent the old feeling of kindliness, mutual 
confidence, respect and esteem which formerly dis- 
tinguished the relations between the employer and 
his men." 

"The great inventions, the improvements, the dis- 
coveries in science, the great works in literature have 
sprung from the ranks of the poor. You can scarcely 
name a great invention or a great discovery, you can 
scarcely name a great picture or a great statue, a 
great song or a great story, nor anything great, that 



THE PEN OF A READY WRITER 211 

has not been the product of men who started like your- 
selves to earn an honest living by honest work. 

"And, believe me, the man whom the foreman does 
not appreciate, and the foreman whom the manager 
does not appreciate, and the manager whom the firm 
does not appreciate, has to find the fault not in the 
firm, or the manager, or the foreman, but in himself. 
He cannot give the service that which is so invaluable 
and so anxiously looked for. There is no man who 
may not rise to the highest position, nor is tjiere any 
man who, from lack of the right qualities or failure to 
exercise them, may not sink to the lowest. Employes 
have chances to rise to higher work, to rise to foremen, 
to be superintendents, and even to rise to be partners, 
and even to be chairmen in our service, if they prove 
themselves possessed of the qualities required. They 
need never fear being dispensed with. It is we who 
fear that the abilities of such nien may be lost to us.'\ 

The following from "The Three-Legged Stool" 
shows that Mr. Carnegie places labor on the same 
plane with capital and business ability. 

"There is a partnership of three in the industrial 
world when an enterprise is planned. The first of 
these, not in importance but in time, is Capital. With- 
out it nothing costly can be built. From it comes 
the first breath of life into matter, previously inert. 

** The structures reared, equipped and ready to begin 



2 1 2 ADNREW CARNEGIE 

in any line of industrial activity, the second partner 
comes into operation. That is Business Ability. 
Capital has done its part. It has provided all the 
, instrumentalities of production ; but unless it can com- 
mand the services of able men to manage the business, 
all that Capital has done crumbles into ruin. 

"Then comes the third partner, last in order of time 
but not least, Labor. If it fails to perform its part, 
nothing can be accomplished. Capital and Business 
Ability, without it brought into play, are dead. The 
wheels cannot revolve unless the hand of Labor starts 
them. 

** Now, volumes can be written as to which one of the 
three partners is first, second or third in importance, 
and the subject will remain just as it was before. Po- 
litical economists, speculative philosophers and preach- 
ers have been giving their views on the subject for 
hundreds of years, but the answer has not yet been 
found, nor can it ever be, because each of the three 
is all-important, and every one is equally essential 
to the other two. There is no first, second or last. 
C There is no precedence ! They are equal members of 
■' the great triple alliance which moves the industrial 
( world. As a matter of history, Labor existed before 
Capital or Business Ability, for when * Adam digged 
and Eve span ' Adam had no capital, and if one may 
judge from the sequel, neither of the two was inordi- 



THE PEN OF A READY WRITER 213 

nately blessed with business ability ; but this was before 
the reign of Industrialism began and huge investments 
of Capital were necessary. 

" In our day Capital, Business Ability, Manual Labor } 
are the legs of a three-legged stool. While the three 
legs stand sound and firm, the stool stands ; but let any 
one of the three weaken and break, let it be pulled out 
or struck out, down goes the stool to the groimd. And 
the stool is of no use until the third leg is restored." 

The author of *The Gospel of Wealth" considers 
thrift an evidence of civilization : the following from his 
essay, "Thrift": 

* 'The importance of the subject is suggested by the 
fact that the habit of thrift constitutes one of the 
greatest differences between the savage and the civil- 
ized man. One of the fundamental differences be- 
tween savage and civilized life is the absence of thrift 
in the one and the presence of it in the other. When 
millions of men each save a little of their daily earn- 
ings, these petty sums combined make an enormous 
amount, which is called capital, about which so much 
is written. If men consumed each day of each week 
all they earned, as does the savage, of course there 
would be no capital — that is, no savings laid up for 
future use. 

Now, let us see what capital does in the world. We 
will consider what the shipbuilders do when they 



214 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

have to build great ships. These enterprising com- 
panies offer to build an ocean greyhound for, let us 
say, £500,000, to be paid only when the ship is de- 
livered after satisfactory trial trips. Where or how 
do the shipbuilders get this sum of money to pay the 
workmen, the wood merchant, the steel manufacturer, 
and all the people who furnish material for the build- 
ing of the ship ? They get it from the savings of civil- 
ized men. It is part of the money saved for invest- 
ment by the millions of industrious people. Each 
man, by thrift, saves a little, puts the money in a 
bank, and the bank lends it to the shipbuilders, who 
pay interest for the use of it. It is the same with the 
building of a manufactory, a railroad, a canal, or any- 
thing costly. We could not have had anything more 
than the savage had, except for thrift.*' 

Mr. Carnegie is an orator as well as an author. His 
speeches have a fine literary flavor, and are always 
distinguished by sound common-sense argument and 
logical reasoning. He is fertile in ideas and felicitous 
in expression, and speaks with a clear, telling voice, 
enforcing his points with graceful gesture. 



Obiter Dicta 



I 



CHAPTER XII 

OBITER DICTA 

AM now entirely out of business, and nothing could 
tempt me to return." Mr. Carnegie had always 
intended to retire from business as soon after sixty as 
possible, and to spend the eventide of his life in "rest, 
recreation and philanthropy." The formation of the 
colossal Steel Trust, with a capital of $1,100,000,000, 
having afforded him the desired opporttmity to dis- 
pose of his vast interests, the Steel King handed over 
his possessions, took up his $250,000,000 in five per 
cent, bonds and surplus before invested, and was free. 
The whole world was open to him, but he fulfilled 
universal expectations by electing to return to his 
native land and spend at least the simimers of the 
remaining years of his life amongst the mountain 
and moor, and the heather and loch, of "Bonnie 
Scotland." 

At the time when his father became a naturalized 
American Andrew was a minor, and consequently in 
due course he stepped into the rights and privileges, 
which he values so highly, of a full-fledged citizen of 
the United States. It is therefore only fitting that, as 
his country seat is in Scotland, his town residence 

217 



2i8 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

should be in America. The palace on Fifth Avenue, 
New York, which he has built for his own use, is in all 
ways a dwelling-place worthy of a rich man. Mr. 
Carnegie, however, true to his democratic principles, 
gave instructions when the plans were being prepared 
that the chief consideration should be "beauty, sim- 
plicity and comfort." He recognized that his new 
residence, from its size and the extent of its grounds, 
must be a conspicuous object, but he deprecated 
unnecessary magnificence or useless display, and conse- 
quently his mansion is not so pretentious as many 
others in that city of millionaires. The material used 
in its construction was Indiana limestone and Harvard 
brick; the decorations are in marble, onyx and bronze. 
Mr. Carnegie will, no doubt, reside in New York during 
some portions of the year, but his absence from his 
beautiful retreat in the North of Scotland will not be 
of long duration. For many years he rented Cluny 
castle as his Scottish residence, but in 1895, hearing 
that Skibo castle was in the market, he instantly made 
inquiries about it, and was told that, although situated 
at the extreme North of Scotland, it enjoyed a beautiful 
climate, remarkably free from rawness, and exceed- 
ingly healthy. 

He promptly secured the option to purchase it for 
$425,000, and was only just in time, as the trustees 
received three other offers a week later. In due course 



OBITER DICTA 219 

he entered into possession of his estate, and upon his 
arrival at his new home he met with an enthusiastic 
reception from the tenantry, who presented him with 
an address of welcome, and a flag bearing the inscrip- 
tion: "Presented to Andrew Carnegie, Esquire, by 
his tenants, crofters and feuars, on the occasion of his 
homecoming as the proprietor of Skibo. ' ' Mr. Carnegie 
made a characteristic reply, in which he said that 
this was his first experience of entering a large resi- 
dential estate as its owner. The best title-deed to the 
land, and the best key to the castle, he added, would 
be the knowledge that he "possessed the hearts of 
his people." 

Mr. Carnegie at once proceeded to overhaul the old 
castle, and drew up plans for comprehensive alterations. 
It was found necessary to demolish about half of it 
condemned as unsafe, and to make extensive altera- 
tions throughout. A new wing, was added to provide 
more accommodation, the whole of the extensions and 
alterations being carried out on the most modem 
lines. The interior of the castle was entirely redeco- 
rated and refurnished, and a spacious library designed 
for the literary tastes of the new owner. The hall is of 
noble dimensions, and leading from it is a staircase 
of white Sicilian marble. The library contains 4,000 
books. 

The principal actor in the ceremony of laying the 



220 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

comer-stone of the new wing was Miss Margaret 
Carnegie, the owner's little daughter. In returning 
thanks for the gift of a trowel, with which the little 
maiden performed the ceremony, Mr. Carnegie said that 
* 'every year of his life confirmed him in the opinion that 
the greatest work men and women could perform was to 
establish on earth happy, virtuous, refined and earnest 
homes. The gift would be the most treasured heir- 
loom of his daughter, and would teach her that any 
wealth and advantages that she might possess carried 
with them corresponding responsibilities." When his 
little girl was bom the papers proclaimed her the 
heiress of millions. Commenting upon this report, Mr. 
Carnegie said,' 'My wife and daughter shall not be cursed 
with great wealth. Wealth can only bring happiness 
in the sense that it brings us greater opportunities of 
making others happy. The truest happiness is to 
make others happy." Mrs. Carnegie has herself no 
desire to inherit millions. 

The fireside circle at Skibo is composed of Mr. 
Carnegie, his wife and daughter, and a sister of Mrs. 
Carnegie. The hostess is an American lady who has 
made herself beloved by all who have met her. .^Mrs. 
Cgrnegie, who is twenty years younger than her hus- 
band, throws her heart and soul into all his schemes, 
and it is to her that he first turns for advice. She is 
consulted upon the management of his business affairs 



OBITER DICTA 221 

and public benefactions, and upon her womanly wisdom 
and far-seeing judgment his decision is often founded. 
Charming, vivacious and clever, Mrs. Carnegie is a 
model hostess, but she prefers to be regarded simply 
as the mistress of Skibo, and not as a person of public 
interest. She does not court the attention of the 
^'personal paragraphist," and shuns that prying indi- 
vidual, "the interviewer." 

Mr. Carnegie's home could not be otherwise than 
the centre of happiness, and it is made still more radiant 
with the joy of the presence of a sparkling jewel which 
is very dear to Mr. Carnegie's heart. When his little 
daughter was bom Mr. Carnegie said he had now 
everything in the world his heart desired. 

Skibo castle is situated on the northern shore of the 
Dornoch Firth, Sutherlandshire, in the midst of a 
romantic district, surroimded with a halo of tradition 
and teeming with innumerable legends. It has a high 
elevation, about half a mile from tidal water, and 
is sheltered from the northern winds by hills and 
woods, while from its windows a magnificent panorama 
of mountain and loch stretches southward. The 
grounds are extensive and beautifully laid out. The 
estate extends many miles inland from the firth, and 
includes hundreds of acres of brown heath and shaggy 
wood, over which Mr. Carnegie's guests enjoy as good 
grouse shooting as is to be found in Scotland. 



2 2 2 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

In the park half a mile from the house lie the golf 
links, in which Mr. Carnegie takes such keen delight. 
During recent years they have been considerably 
developed and improved, until they are now one of 
the finest courses in the country. Mr. Carnegie is an 
enthusiast, and no mean exponent of the royal game. 
Every visitor to Skibo inspects the golf links, and 
nothing pleases the genial host more than for his guests 
to accompany him for a run over the long stretch of 
heather. He once said to a friend who was playing a 
game with him, and who had happened to make a long 
drive off the tee, that for the joy of making one such 
drive the payment of $io,ooo would be cheap. 

Mr. Carnegie is nearly as zealous in the pursuit of 
his other sport, but unlike most fishermen, he does not 
go simply to display his patience, for the streams he has 
resort to are filled with salmon and trout. The Laird 
of Skibo is also very fond of coaching, and by this 
means he has traveled many hundreds of miles both 
in Britain and America. A splendid sailor and an 
intense lover of the sea, he is never so happy as when 
being tossed in his beautifully equipped yacht, The 
Seabreeze^ in which, when he is staying at Skibo, he 
takes frequent cruises. The frolics of King Neptune 
seem to harmonize with his nature and bring into play 
all his youthful spirits and enthusiasm. He says : 
*'To him who finds himself comfortable at sea, the 



OBITER DICTA 223 

ocean is the grandest of treats. He never fails to feel 
himself a boy again while on the waves. There is an 
exaltation about it. He walks the monarch of the 
peopled deck, glories in the storm, rises with it, and 
revels in it. Heroic song comes to him. The ship 
becomes a Hving thing, and if the monster rears and 
plunges it is akin to bounding on his thoroughbred 
who knows its rider. Many feel thus, and I am happily 
one of them." 

Mr. Carnegie has a wide circle of friends, and many 
prominent public men have enjoyed the hospitality of 
Skibo since he became its owner. He is very proud 
of his Highland castle, which he once described as 
*'his earthly paradise," and nothing gives him greater 
pleasure than to welcome his friends and point out 
to them the natural beauties of the surrounding 
district. 

Mr. Carnegie is greatly respected by his tenants, 
who find in him an ideal landlord. He has instituted 
a number of reforms, and takes a deep interest in their 
home life and daily work. It is not an uncommon 
sight, when he is at Skibo, to see him engaged in a pro- 
longed discussion with some old son of the soil, and he 
owns that he often emerges from the wordy conflict 
but "second best." From the old castle tower an 
immense double flag — the Union Jack and Stars and 
Stripes— floats in the breeze. A friend describing a 



224 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

visit he paid to Mr. Carnegie in his Highland home, 
says, *'Mr. Carnegie keeps his own piper, and every 
morning the inmates are wakened by the shrill music 
of the Highlands. Before dinner the same bagpipes 
serve as the substitute for the dinner bell, and the 
piper marches to the dining-room, followed by the 
guests." 

Life in Skibo resembles that in most Highland 
castles. The hall is littered with books and news- 
papers, both British and American, but a special feature 
is the organ, on which every morning before breakfast 
sweet music is discoursed. It is Mr. Camegie^s substi- 
tute for family prayers, and but the beginning of the 
musical service with which he hopes in time to salute 
each smiling mom. 

In personal appearance Mr. Carnegie is a short, 
sprightly man, about five feet six inches in height, 
with an erect bearing, keen gray eyes, broad forehead 
and powerful jaw. His temperament is buoyant and 
youthful, and his physical endurance and ready inter- 
est are remarkable. His hair has now turned gray, but 
that is the only indication of advancing years. He 
was blessed with a sound constitution, and this, added 
to the fact that he eschewed the vices of youth and 
followed the path of manly rectitude and healthy 
recreation, has largely contributed to his success. Mr. 
Carnegie is a non-smoker, and exceedingly abstemious 



OBITER DICTA 225 

in his habits. Moderation in all things has character- 
ized his mode of living, and to this must be attributed 
his wonderful vitality of mind and body, which is 
superior to that possessed by many men half his age. 
Like Mr. Gladstone, the grand old man of the nineteenth 
century, whom he so reverently admired, Mr. Carnegie 
possesses the precious quality of being able to fall 
asleep at will, and in the short intervals between the 
stress of business he has a habit of dropping off into a 
refreshing slumber. 

The retired capitalist speaks rather slowly and 
clearly entmciates every word. The maxim, "Think 
twice before you speak once," has great weight with 
him. He is not one to be led unawares into making 
a promise or expressing an opinion. He regards his 
interrogator with a keen look from his brilliant, shrewd, 
piercing eyes that seem to penetrate one's very mind ; 
then, even if it be merely a . commonplace, he will 
answer in his deliberate way, clearly impressing his 
meaning upon his hearers. His face is a study in 
character. His large, penetrating eyes, broad fore- 
head and square chin stamp him as a man of com- 
mercial foresight, intellectual strength and strong will 
power. His features, though prominently marked, are 
not harsh in outline, or they would belie the genial 
blood which courses through his veins. Smiles are far 
more fashionable with Mr. Carnegie than scowls, though 



226 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

at times he can look austere. He prefers optimism's 
blue skies to pessimism's dark caverns, and is always 
willing to exchange a joke or initiate a discussion. 
He is a clever conversationalist, with a ready com- 
mand of reliable information and a good stock of 
stories drawn from his personal experience. His 
vocabulary is not limited, either, and when satisfied 
that his views are just he is not easily dislodged from 
his position. He has conversed with the great men of 
England and America, and wherever he goes he leaves 
the impression of a strongly welded character and 
a well-balanced mind. 

In sharp contrast to his speech, his manner is very 
restless and indicative of a large reserve of pent-up 
energy. All who have come in contact with the man 
have been impressed with his strong character and 
conspicuous ability. Ian Maclaren says of him, that 
the first time they met he felt instinctively that **an 
able-bodied, able-minded, fully equipped and well- 
finished man was there." Although short in stature, 
Mr. Carnegie has a large head, and imlike the brain 
that has amassed his millions, the hand that signs 
them away is small. 

His office in his home, where he transacts his business, 
is fitted up with every convenience. His reservoir 
of information is a big chest of drawers, and each one 
is devoted to a separate object. Every drawer has 



OBITER DICTA 227 

affixed to it a label, such as "The Carnegie Steel Com- 
pany's Reports, etc., etc.," "Correspondence about 
Libraries," "Grants, and Other Donations," "Appli- 
cations for Aid," "Autograph Letters to Keep," "Pub- 
lication Articles," "Skibo Estate," "Pittsburgh Insti- 
tute." The indispensable typewriter is there as a 
matter of course, and hanging on the wall are a num- 
ber of maps dotted with little flags to denote where the 
scene of action for the moment lies. Apart from an 
avalanche of wordy epistles, he has a large amount of 
business to transact, but he has an excellent system 
of rapid working, and with his capable secretary, Mr. 
James Bertram, he manages to accomplish his daily 
duties without seriously curtailing his leistire. 

The Laird of Skibo is an omnivorous reader, and 
keeps himself thoroughly well informed on current 
affairs. Every day he reads half a dozen newspapers, 
and he digests a number of weeklies and all the impor- 
tant monthly reviews and magazines. Quick to single 
out what interests him, he ignores the rest. Of more 
soHd literature he has read widely, and has a natural 
taste for the best writings of all ages. Shakespeare 
and Burns are his special favorites, and he pays each 
his daily homage by reading some portion of their 
works. 

As his book, "Round the World," proves, Mr. 
Carnegie has traveled widely, and to some purpose. 



228 ANDREW CARNEGIE 

He has crossed the Atlantic more than sixty times, 
and made expeditions to the North Cape, China, Japan, 
and Mexico. These extensive travels have widened 
the horizon of his thought and enriched his experience. 
His course through life has admirably fitted him for the 
great and responsible task he has set himself to fulfil. 
It can be truthfully said that, take him all in all, there 
is no living person better fitted than himself to dis- 
tribute his wealth wisely. 

The task seems almost superhuman in its vastness, 
as every gift will be preceded by much thought and 
careful inquiry. Mr. Carnegie could give his forttme 
away at once, but one thing is certain, that no part of 
his wealth will be squandered in hasty and ill-advised 
gifts. If he kept his capital intact, which is most 
unlikely, and distributed his income alone in bene- 
factions, he would be able to give away over $35,000 
every day, or $13,750,000 per annum. 

But no one knows through what channels Mr. 
Carnegie's wealth will flow, for he is not given to adver- 
tising his plans on the housetops before they are ready 
to be put in operation. Let it suffice us to know that 
he will fulfil his promise, and let us be thankful that 
such a vast agency for good is in the hands of a man 
actuated by the highest principles and the noblest 
ideals. 



INDEX 



Adams Express Company, in- 
vestment in, 2 2 

Allegheny, Mr. Carnegie's gift 
to, 159 

America, Mr. Carnegie's love 
for, 187 

American Civil War, 25 

competition, 37 

employer, 70-73 

progress, 106 

workmen, 62, 64, 73, 81 

workmen, sobriety of, 124 

"An American Four-in-Hand in 
Britain," 186, 194 

Anderson, Colonel, 156 

Anglo-American reunion, 106- 
108 

Aristocracy, Mr. Carnegie and, 
6, 64, 95 

Balfour, A. J., 169 

Bannerman, Sir. H. Campbell, 
169 

Beaconsfield, Lord, 95-96 

Bemis, Professor, on Homestead 
Strike, 85 

Benefactions, object worthy of, 
145-146 

Bessemer process,' 35, 38 

Birmingham Free Library, pre- 
sentation to, 98 

University, gift to, 120- 

122, 163-164 

Books, Mr. Carnegie and, 181 

Braddock Steel Works, strike 
at, 78, 80 

Bright, John, 97 

British- American union, 108 

manufacturer , 114, 126 

trade, 113 

British workman, 69 

Browning quoted, 105 

Bruce, Robert, 3 

Bryan, Mr. Carnegie's opposi- 
tion to, lor 



Bryce, Mr., 169 
Bums, 4, 227 

Carnegie, his birth, 3; educa- 
tion, 4; school life, 4; devo- 
tion to his mother, 7, 8; his 
father, 9; farewell to Dun- 
fermline, 10; first situation, 1 1 ; 
his home, 13; telegraph mes- 
senger, 17; telegraph opera- 
tor, 20; enters service of 
Pennsylvania Railroad Co., 
22; first investment, 23; Civil 
War, 25; sleeping car inven- 
tion 27; investment in Oil 
Creek, 31; enters business for 
himself, 34; adopts Bessemer 
process, 36 ; growth and organ- 
ization, 38-39; negotiations 
with Steel Trust, 51; his 
profits, 52; attitude toward 
trusts, 53; belief in yotmg 
men, 54; his partners, 57; 
employer of labor, 61-74; 
disputes with his workmen, 
78-86; his views on strikes, 
88; his political views, 93- 
102 ; Anglo-American reimion, 
105-108; on commercial 
methods and equipment, 118- 
1 26 ; his Gospel of Wealth, 1 29- 
150; his benefactions, 153- 
178; Skibo castle, 218, 221; 
his recreation, 222; personal 
characteristics, 224-226; his 
favorite literature, 227; his 
literary work, 181 ; his travels, 
228; his great task in the 
future, 228 

Miss, 220 

Carnegie, Mrs., 220-221 

Steel Co., 45 

Ceylon, conditions in, 184 
Chamberlain, Joseph, M.P., 97- 
98, 120, 163 



229 



230 



INDEX {Continued) 



Charity, indiscriminate, 139 
Church, Mr. Carnegie's view on, 

147-148 
Copartnership, 62 
Commerce, Minister of, 116 
Commercial education, 1 18-123 
Competition, effect of, 9, 116, 

135 
Compulsory arbitration, 89 
Conversationalist, Mr. Carnegie 

as a, 226 
Correspondence, Mr. Carnegie's, 

149, 227 

Daily News Weekly, 117 

Death duties, 137 

Dilke, Sir Charles, 97 

Dunfermline, 3, 8 

Mr. Carnegie's gift to, 169 

Edgar Thompson Steel Works, 

Z9^ 47 
Elgm, Earl of, 169 
Emigration, 64 
Employers, American, 70 

duty of, 63 

England, Mr. Carnegie's visit to, 

35 
England's danger, 114-115 

future, 113 

English M. P.'s, Mr. Carnegie's 

opinion of , 99 
English race, qualities of, 114 

Fishing, Mr. Carnegie and, 222 
Free trade, 99 
Freedom of speech, 5 
Frick, H. C, 81, 84, 87 

Garfield, reference to, 188 
Garland, Hamlin, quoted, 65-69 
Giving, art of, 153 
Gladstone, W. E., 95, 96, 97, loi 

on Mr. Carnegie, 143 

Glasgow, Mr. Carnegie's gift to, 

158 
Golf, Mr. Carnegie and, 222 
Great Britain and her com- 
merce, 113, 11$, 118, 123-126 

Homestead Steel Works, 45- 

46, 65-69, 81-87 
Hospitals, 145 
House of Lords, 95, 102 

Commons, 102 

Hughes, Rev. Hugh Price, 

quoted, 143, 144 



Imperialism, Mr. Carnegie and, 

102, 114, 116, 185 
India, workmen in, 185 
Industrious poor, 131 
Investments, Mr. Carnegie's, 

22, 23, 28, 29 

Japan, Mr. Carnegie's prophecy 
about, 183 

Journalism, Mr. Carnegie's con- 
nection with, 21, 103 

Keystone Bridge Works, 33 

Labouchere, 97 

Labor, conditions of, in United 
States, 61; treatment of rep- 
resentatives, 80; his theory 
and practice in respect to, 63- 
65; conflicts with, 80-88; his 
views on strikes, 88, 89 

Lake Superior, 49 

Libraries, free, 71, 145, 157-161, 
170 

Literary Work, Mr. Carnegie's, 
181 

Long hours, 7 1 

Maclaren, Ian, quoted, 226 
Magazines, influence of, 103 
McKinley tariff, 100 
Millionaires, duty of, 140-141 
Mr. Carnegie's views on, 

143-144 
Missionaries in China, 104 
Monarchy, hatred of, 5, 95 
Morgan, Mr. Pierpont, 37 
Morley, John, Mr., M. P., 97 
Mother, his, 6, 7, 8, 23 
Music, Mr. Carnegie's fondness 

for, 165, 224 

New York, Mr. Carnegie's 

gifts to, 154, 157, 166 
New York, his residence in, 218 
Newspapers, connection with, 

21, 103 
Nineteenth Century and After 

quoted, 114 
North American Review quoted, 

134, 144 

Obsolete machinery, 123 
O'Donnell and Homestead 

Strike, 85 



INDEX (Continued) 



231 



Old age problem, 64 

Organs, Mr. Carnegie's gift of, 

146, 161 
"Our Coaching Trip," 186 
extracts from, 187-194 

Parks, public, 146 

Parliament, 187 

Peace, Mr. Carnegie's support 
of, lOI 

Pennsylvania Railroad Co. , 2 1 

Pension fund, Mr. Carnegie's, 
166-167 

Philanthropy, best fields for, 149 

objects worthy of, 145 

Philippine War, 10 1 

Pinkerton detectives, 82, 84 

Pittsburg Library, Mr. Car- 
negie's gift of, 157, 160 

Mr. Carnegie's references 

to, II, 72, 160 

Politics, early, 5 

Poverty, advantages of, 13-14, 

article on, 132, 134 

Press, Mr. Carnegie on the 

power of the, 103 
Protection duties, 99 
Pullman car investment, 28 
Pulpit, Mr. Carnegie's views on, 

103 

Queen Victoria, 3 

Railway, service on, 25 

trucks, English, 125 

Reading, Mr. Carnegie and, 227 
Reed, Douglas, 17 
Republican Government, Mr. 

Carnegie on, 5, 93, 97 
Rockefeller, J. D., 32 
Roseberry, Earl of, 169 
•"Round the World," 181 
extracts from, 182-186 

Salisbury, Lord, 95 
Schemes suggested, 173-174 
Schwab, Mr., 55 

Scotland, Mr. Carnegie and, 194 
Scott, Thomas, 21, 24-25 
Scottish discontent, 4 
Universities, his endow- 
ment of, 162, 167 
Self-help, 153 



Shakespeare quoted, 33 

Mr. Carnegie and, 227 

Shaw, Thomas, M. P., 169 
Skibo castle, 218-219, 221-224 
Social reform, 96 
South African War, Mr. Car- 
negie on, loi, 115 
Speaker, Mr. Carnegie as a, 225 
Spencer, Herbert, Mr. Carnegie's 

admiration of, 105 
Steel rails, 36 
Storey oil creek, 31 
Strikes, Mr. Carnegie on, 88 
Students and their fees, 171, 172 
Swimming-baths, 145 

Task, his future, 228 
Telegraph boy, as a, 17-20 
Tenants, Mr. Carnegie and his, 

223 
"The A B C of money, " 206-208 
"The Empire of Business," 206 
"The Three-legged Stool," 211- 

213 
Thrift, 213 

encouragement of, 7 1 

Trade unionism, 77-78, 124 
Travels, Mr. Carnegie's, 228 
' ' Triumphant Democracy , " 5 , 

199—200, 202 
Trusts, Mr. Carnegie's views 

on, 53 

Uncle, his, 6 

United States, 93, 94, 99 

Steel Corporation, 55, 168, 

217 
Universities, 145 

War, Mr. Carnegie's hatred of, 

26, loi, 186 
Wealth, Mr. Carnegie's Gospel 

of, 12, 13, 129, 150 
Wealth, reward of, 149 
Workmen, duty of, 64 

American, 69 

English, 69 

Mr. Carnegie and his, 166 

Yachting, Mr. Carnegie and, 

222 
Young men, Mr. Carnegie's 

belief in, 54-57, 122-123 




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